hosted by

Emmanouil Flemetakis

Dr. Emmanouil Flemetakis
Assistant Professor in Biochemistry
Lab of Molecular Biology
Dep. of Agricultural Biotechnology
Agricultural University of Athens
Iera Odos 75
11855, Athens

Tel: +30-210-5294343
Research Activities

My current research activities cover several areas of Plant and Microbe Molecular Biochemistry and Biotechnology, including:

Molecular and Biochemical studies in plants and microbe metabolism, with emphasis in the:
Heterotrophic CO2 and its interaction with nitrogen metabolism in the nitrogen-fixing nodules of legumes.
Interactions between nitrogen and sulphur metabolism in nitrogen fixing nodules

Studies on the relationship between structure and function of proteins

Combination of modern transcriptomic and metabolomic technologies for studies on the regulation of complex metabolic processes.

Applications of plant and microbe Biotechnology in modern Agriculture

Journal articles

M N Fotelli, D Tsikou, A Kolliopoulou, G Aivalakis, P Katinakis, M K Udvardi, H Rennenberg, E Flemetakis (2011)  Nodulation enhances dark CO2 fixation and recycling in the model legume Lotus japonicus   J Exp Bot 62: 8. 2959-71  
Abstract: During symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF), the nodule becomes a strong sink for photosynthetic carbon. Here, it was studied whether nodule dark CO(2) fixation could participate in a mechanism for CO(2) recycling through C(4)-type photosynthesis. Differences in the natural delta(13)C abundance between Lotus japonicus inoculated or not with the N-fixing Mesorhizobium loti were assessed. (13)C labelling and gene expression of key enzymes of CO(2) metabolism were applied in plants inoculated with wild-type or mutant fix(-) (deficient in N fixation) strains of M. loti, and in non-inoculated plants. Compared with non-inoculated legumes, inoculated legumes had higher natural delta(13)C abundance and total C in their hypergeous organs and nodules. In stems, (13)C accumulation and expression of genes coding for enzymes of malate metabolism were greater in inoculated compared with non-inoculated plants. Malate-oxidizing activity was localized in stem xylem parenchyma, sieve tubes, and photosynthetic outer cortex parenchyma of inoculated plants. In stems of plants inoculated with fix(-) M. loti strains, (13)C accumulation remained high, while accumulation of transcripts coding for malic enzyme isoforms increased. A potential mechanism is proposed for reducing carbon losses during SNF by the direct reincorporation of CO(2) respired by nodules and the transport and metabolism of C-containing metabolites in hypergeous organs.
Notes: Fotelli, Mariangela N xD;Tsikou, Daniela xD;Kolliopoulou, Anna xD;Aivalakis, Georgios xD;Katinakis, Panagiotis xD;Udvardi, Michael K xD;Rennenberg, Heinz xD;Flemetakis, Emmanouil xD;England xD;Journal of experimental botany xD;J Exp Bot. 2011 May;62(8):2959-71. Epub 2011 Feb 9.
M K Fasseas, D Tsikou, E Flemetakis, P Katinakis (2011)  Molecular and biochemical analysis of the alpha class carbonic anhydrases in Caenorhabditis elegans   Mol Biol Rep 38: 3. 1777-85  
Abstract: In this study, in silico analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome revealed six genes (cah-1, cah-2, cah-3, cah-4, cah-5, and cah-6) possibly encoding alpha class CAs (carbonic anhydrase). Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed the temporal expression pattern of each gene, as well as changes in expression levels under different atmospheric conditions (stress). Cah-3 and cah-4 showed the highest levels of transcript accumulation, while most genes responded to the stress conditions. Yeast complementation showed that cah-3 was able to complement the function of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CA (NCE103) in vivo. Recombinant CAH-3, CAH-4a and CAH-5 enzymes, expressed in Escherichia coli were used for in vitro measurement of CA activity. However, in vitro activity was only detectable for CAH-4a. RNAi by feeding was performed on wild-type C. elegans for all genes. The worms were examined for a visible phenotype under normal and stress conditions (pH, CO(2)/O(2)). Silencing cah-3 and cah-4 may reduce the life-span of the worms (at 22 degrees C).
Notes: Fasseas, Michael K xD;Tsikou, Daniela xD;Flemetakis, Emmanouil xD;Katinakis, Panagiotis xD;Netherlands xD;Molecular biology reports xD;Mol Biol Rep. 2011 Mar;38(3):1777-85. Epub 2010 Sep 15.
E Tani, A Tsaballa, C Stedel, C Kalloniati, D Papaefthimiou, A Polidoros, N Darzentas, I Ganopoulos, E Flemetakis, P Katinakis, A Tsaftaris (2011)  The study of a SPATULA-like bHLH transcription factor expressed during peach (Prunus persica) fruit development   Plant Physiol Biochem 49: 6. 654-63  
Abstract: Extensive studies on the dry fruits of the model plant arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have revealed various gene regulators of the development and dehiscence of the siliques. Peach pericarp is analogous to the valve tissues of the arabidopsis siliques. The stone (otherwise called pit) in drupes is formed through lignification of the fruit endocarp. The lignified endocarp in peach can be susceptible to split-pit formation under certain genetic as well as environmental factors. This phenomenon delays processing of the clingstone varieties of peach and causes economical losses for the peach fruit canning industry. The FRUITFULL (FUL) and SHATTERPROOF (SHP) genes are key MADS-box transcription protein coding factors that control fruit development and dehiscence in arabidopsis by promoting the expression of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors like SPATULA (SPT) and ALCATRAZ (ALC). Results from our previous studies on peach suggested that temporal regulation of PPERFUL and PPERSHP gene expression may be involved in the regulation of endocarp margin development. In the present study a PPERSPATULA-like (PPERSPT) gene was cloned and characterized. Comparative analysis of temporal regulation of PPERSPT gene expression during pit hardening in a resistant and a susceptible to split-pit variety, suggests that this gene adds one more component to the genes network that controls endocarp margins development in peach. Taking into consideration that no ALC-like genes have been identified in any dicot plant species outside the Brassicaceae family, where arabidopsis belongs, PPERSPT may have additional role(s) in peach that are fulfilled in arabidopsis by ALC.
Notes: Tani, Eleni xD;Tsaballa, Aphrodite xD;Stedel, Catalina xD;Kalloniati, Chrissanthi xD;Papaefthimiou, Dimitra xD;Polidoros, Alexios xD;Darzentas, Nikos xD;Ganopoulos, Ioannis xD;Flemetakis, Emmanouil xD;Katinakis, Panagiotis xD;Tsaftaris, Athanasios xD;France xD;Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB / Societe francaise de physiologie vegetale xD;Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011 Jun;49(6):654-63. Epub 2011 Jan 27.
K I Kalliampakou, E D Kouri, H Boleti, O Pavli, L Maurousset, M K Udvardi, P Katinakis, R Lemoine, E Flemetakis (2011)  Cloning and functional characterization of LjPLT4, a plasma membrane xylitol H(+)- symporter from Lotus japonicus   Mol Membr Biol 28: 1. 1-13  
Abstract: Polyols are compounds that play various physiological roles in plants. Here we present the identification of four cDNA clones of the model legume Lotus japonicus, encoding proteins of the monosaccharide transporter-like (MST) superfamily that share significant homology with previously characterized polyol transporters (PLTs). One of the transporters, named LjPLT4, was characterized functionally after expression in yeast. Transport assays revealed that LjPLT4 is a xylitol-specific H(+)-symporter (K (m), 0.34 mM). In contrast to the previously characterized homologues, LjPLT4 was unable to transport other polyols, including mannitol, sorbitol, myo-inositol and galactitol, or any of the monosaccharides tested. Interestingly, some monosaccharides, including fructose and xylose, inhibited xylitol uptake, although no significant uptake of these compounds was detected in the LjPLT4 transformed yeast cells, suggesting interactions with the xylitol binding site. Subcellular localization of LjPLT4-eYFP fusions expressed in Arabidopsis leaf epidermal cells indicated that LjPLT4 is localized in the plasma membrane. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that LjPLT4 is expressed in all major plant organs, with maximum transcript accumulation in leaves correlating with maximum xylitol levels there, as determined by GC-MS. Thus, LjPLT4 is the first plasma membrane xylitol-specific H(+)-symporter to be characterized in plants.
Notes: Kalliampakou, Katerina I xD;Kouri, Evangelia D xD;Boleti, Haralabia xD;Pavli, Ourania xD;Maurousset, Laurence xD;Udvardi, Michael K xD;Katinakis, Panagiotis xD;Lemoine, Remi xD;Flemetakis, Emmanouil xD;Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't xD;England xD;Molecular membrane biology xD;Mol Membr Biol. 2011 Jan;28(1):1-13.
D Tsikou, C Stedel, E D Kouri, M K Udvardi, T L Wang, P Katinakis, N E Labrou, E Flemetakis (2011)  Characterization of two novel nodule-enhanced alpha-type carbonic anhydrases from Lotus japonicus   Biochim Biophys Acta 1814: 4. 496-504  
Abstract: Two cDNA clones coding for alpha-type carbonic anhydrases (CA; EC in the nitrogen-fixing nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus were identified. Functionality of the full-length proteins was confirmed by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and purification of the encoded polypeptides. The developmental expression pattern of LjCAA1 and LjCAA2 revealed that both genes code for nodule enhanced carbonic anhydrase isoforms, which are induced early during nodule development. The genes were slightly to moderately down-regulated in ineffective nodules formed by mutant Mesorhizobium loti strains, indicating that these genes may also be involved in biochemical and physiological processes not directly linked to nitrogen fixation/assimilation. The spatial expression profiling revealed that both genes were expressed in nodule inner cortical cells, vascular bundles and central tissue. These results are discussed in the context of the possible roles of CA in nodule carbon dioxide (CO(2)) metabolism.
Notes: Tsikou, Daniela xD;Stedel, Catalina xD;Kouri, Evangelia D xD;Udvardi, Michael K xD;Wang, Trevor L xD;Katinakis, Panagiotis xD;Labrou, Nikolaos E xD;Flemetakis, Emmanouil xD;Netherlands xD;Biochimica et biophysica acta xD;Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Apr;1814(4):496-504. Epub 2011 Jan 21.
M K Fasseas, D Tsikou, E Flemetakis, P Katinakis (2010)  Molecular and biochemical analysis of the beta class carbonic anhydrases in Caenorhabditis elegans   Mol Biol Rep 37: 6. 2941-50  
Abstract: The beta class of the carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme family has been found in plants, yeast, bacteria and algae, but not in animals. Also, little is known concerning the CAs of C. elegans. Genes possibly encoding beta-CAs were revealed by in silico analysis of the C. elegans genome. Amino acid sequence and 3D structure analysis revealed a resemblance to both plant and cab-type beta-CAs. Temporal expression patterns of the two genes, as well as changes in expression levels under different atmospheric conditions (stress) were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Recombinant enzymes, expressed in E. coli were used for in vitro measurement of CA activity, while a yeast complementation experiment was performed in order to assess their ability to complement the function of S. crevisieae beta-CA (NCE103) in vivo. RNAi by feeding was performed on wild-type populations that were then examined for a visible phenotype under normal or various stress conditions (pH, CO(2)/O(2)). Two genes possibly encoding beta-CAs were revealed (bca-1 and y116a8c.28). Their products contain elements of both plant and cab-type CAs. Both assays showed that Y116a8c.28 is an active CA. Both genes showed significant levels of transcript accumulation during development, while they also responded to the stress conditions. No visible phenotype was scored under normal or stress conditions.
Notes: Fasseas, Michael K xD;Tsikou, Daniela xD;Flemetakis, Emmanouil xD;Katinakis, Panagiotis xD;Netherlands xD;Molecular biology reports xD;Mol Biol Rep. 2010 Jul;37(6):2941-50. Epub 2009 Oct 9.
T Welham, J Pike, I Horst, E Flemetakis, P Katinakis, T Kaneko, S Sato, S Tabata, J Perry, M Parniske, T L Wang (2009)  A cytosolic invertase is required for normal growth and cell development in the model legume, Lotus japonicus   Journal of Experimental Botany 60: 12. 3353-3365  
Abstract: Neutral/alkaline invertases are a subgroup, confined to plants and cyanobacteria, of a diverse family of enzymes. A family of seven closely-related genes, LjINV1-LjINV7, is described here and their expression in the model legume, Lotus japonicus, is examined. LjINV1 previously identified as encoding a nodule-enhanced isoform is the predominant isoform present in all parts of the plant. Mutants for two isoforms, LjINV1 and LjINV2, were isolated using TILLING. A premature stop codon allele of LjINV2 had no effect on enzyme activity nor did it show a visible phenotype. For LjINV1, premature stop codon and missense mutations were obtained and the phenotype of the mutants examined. Recovery of homozygous mutants was problematic, but their phenotype showed a severe reduction in growth of the root and the shoot, a change in cellular development, and impaired flowering. The cellular organization of both roots and leaves was altered; leaves were smaller and thicker with extra layers of cells and roots showed an extended and broader zone of cell division. Moreover, anthers contained no pollen. Both heterozygotes and homozygous mutants showed decreased amounts of enzyme activity in nodules and shoot tips. Shoot tips also contained up to a 9-fold increased level of sucrose. However, mutants were capable of forming functional root nodules. LjINV1 is therefore crucial to whole plant development, but is clearly not essential for nodule formation or function.
Notes: 484AH xD;Times Cited:3 xD;Cited References Count:28
A Andreadeli, E Flemetakis, I Axarli, M Dimou, M K Udvardi, P Katinakis, N E Labrou (2009)  Cloning and characterization of Lotus japonicus formate dehydrogenase : A possible correlation with hypoxia   Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Proteins and Proteomics 1794: 6. 976-984  
Abstract: Formate dehydrogenases (FDHs, EC comprise a group of enzymes found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes that catalyse the oxidation of formate to CO2. FDH1 from the model legume Lotus japonicus (LjFDH1) was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) as soluble active protein. The enzyme was purified using affinity chromatography on Cibacron blue 3GA-Sepharose. The enzymatic properties of the recombinant enzyme were investigated and the kinetic parameters (K-m, k(cat)) for a number of substrates were determined. Molecular modelling studies were also employed to create a model of LjFDH1, based on the known structure of the Pseudomonas sp. 101 enzyme. The molecular model was used to help interpret biochemical data concerning substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. The temporal expression pattern of LjFDH1 gene was studied by real-time RT-PCR in various plant organs and during the development of nitrogen-fixing nodules. Furthermore, the spatial transcript accumulation during nodule development and in young seedpods was determined by in situ RNA-RNA hybridization. These results considered together indicate a possible role of formate oxidation by LjFDH1 in plant tissues characterized by relative hypoxia. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Notes: 450GA xD;Times Cited:0 xD;Cited References Count:48
M Dimou, A Paunescu, G Aivalakis, E Flemetakis, P Katinakis (2009)  Co-localization of Carbonic Anhydrase and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase and Localization of Pyruvate Kinase in Roots and Hypocotyls of Etiolated Glycine max Seedlings   International Journal of Molecular Sciences 10: 7. 2896-2910  
Abstract: We investigated the presence of carbonic anhydrase in root and hypocotyl of etiolated soybean using enzymatic, histochemical, immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization approaches. In parallel, we used in situ hybridization and immunolocalization to determine the expression pattern and localization of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. Their co-localization in the root tip as well as in the central cylinder, suggests that a large fraction of the CO2 may be re-introduced into C4 compounds. GmPK3 expression, coding for a cytoplasmic isoform of pyruvate kinase, was detected in all different root cell types, suggesting that both phosphoenolpyruvate-utilizing enzymes are involved in phosphoenolpyruvate metabolism in etiolated soybean roots; a case indicative of the necessary flexibility plant metabolism has to adopt in order to compensate various physiological conditions.
Notes: 474XE xD;Times Cited:0 xD;Cited References Count:51
E Tani, A N Polidoros, E Flemetakis, C Stedel, C Kalloniati, K Demetriou, P Katinakis, A S Tsaftaris (2009)  Characterization and expression analysis of AGAMOUS-like, SEEDSTICK-like, and SEPALLATA-like MADS-box genes in peach (Prunus persica) fruit   Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 47: 8. 690-700  
Abstract: MADS-box genes encode transcriptional regulators that are critical for flowering, flower organogenesis and plant development. Although there are extensive reports on genes involved in flower organogenesis in model and economically important plant species, there are few reports on MADS-box genes in woody plants. In this study, we have cloned and characterized AGAMOUS (AG), SEEDSTICK (STK) and SEPALLATA (SEP) homologs from peach tree (Prunus persica L Batsch) and studied their expression patterns in different tissues as well as in fruit pericarp during pit hardening. AG- STK- and SEP-like homologs, representative of the C-, D-, E-like MADS-box gene lineages, respectively, play key roles in stamen, carpel, ovule and fruit development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence similarities, phylogenetic analysis and structural characteristics were used to provide classification of the isolated genes in type C (PPERAG), type D (PPERSTK) and type E (PPERSEP1, PPERSEP3, PPERFB9) organ identity genes. Expression patterns were determined and in combination with phylogenetic data provided useful indications on the function of these genes. These data suggest the involvement of MADS-box genes in peach flower and fruit development and provide further evidence for the role of these genes in woody perennial trees that is compatible with their function in model plant species. (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Notes: 466BG xD;Times Cited:1 xD;Cited References Count:44
E Tsiplakou, E Flemetakis, C Kalloniati, G Papadomichelakis, P Katinakis, G Zervas (2009)  Sheep and goats differences in CLA and fatty acids milk fat content in relation with mRNA stearoyl-CoA desaturase and lipogenic genes expression in their mammary gland   Journal of Dairy Research 76: 4. 392-401  
Abstract: An experiment was conducted with 12 lactating dairy ewes and 12 goats with the objective to determine whether, under the same dietary treatments, the differences in their fatty acid (FA) profile with emphasis on cis-9 trans-11 CLA milk fat content, are reflected in the transcript levels of genes involved in FA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA biosynthesis. The animals were fed with two diets (A, B) in different days of milk (DIM) due to the different milk yield, body weight etc, in order to have the same food intake and to avoid dietary effects. Diet A was fed to the animals on a group basis as it is traditionally used in practice, while diet B was chosen to avoid individual feed intake variation which is usually observed in group feeding. The results showed that there are significantly lower mRNA levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in sheep mammary gland compared with those of goats, independently from the diet fed. The same trend was observed with the mRNA level of FA synthase (FAS), but the results were significant only for diet A. The mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the mammary gland did not differ between sheep and goats fed with diet A. In addition, the concentration of cis-9 trans-11 CLA content was significantly higher in sheep milk fat compared with those of goats. This is in accordance with the significant higher levels on mRNA of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) which were observed in their mammary adipocytes of sheep compared with those of goats, independently of the fed diet (A or B). In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the differences between sheep and goats, concerning cis-9, trans-11 CLA and FA milk fat content, under the same dietary treatments could be explained in part by the differences in mRNA of SCD and lipogenic genes in their mammary gland.
Notes: 518GR xD;Times Cited:0 xD;Cited References Count:38
C C Sfetsas, L Milios, K Skopelitou, A Venieraki, R Todou, E Flemetakis, P Katinakis, N E Labrou (2009)  Characterization of 1,2-dibromoethane-degrading haloalkane dehalogenase from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110   Enzyme and Microbial Technology 45: 5. 397-404  
Abstract: Haloalkane dehalogenases (DHAs, E.C. are very promising biocatalytic tools for the bioremediation of environmental pollutants which consists of haloalkanes. In the present work. we investigated the DHA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 (BjDHA). The dehalogenase activity of B. japonicum USDA110 and RT-PCR analysis revealed that the BjDHA gene expression is induced by 1,2-dibromoethane (1,2-DBE) during the early exponential phase. The BjDHA gene was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and characterized. The enzyme catalyzes the irreversible hydrolysis of a variety of haloalkanes to the corresponding alcohol, halide, and a hydrogen ion. The catalytic properties of the recombinant enzyme were investigated and the kinetic parameters (K-m, k(cat)) for a number of substrates were determined. The results showed that the BjDHA displays wide substrate specificity towards haloalkanes and particular high activity towards 1,2-DBE. The enzyme has a different catalytic triad topology compared to the Xanthobacter haloalkane dehalogenase and is more similar to the Rhodococcus enzyme. In addition, consistent with its broad specificity, the BjDHA has a substantially larger and more polar active site cavity compared to the Xanthobacter and Rhodococcus enzymes and as a consequence, BjDHA is able to dehalogenate longer and polar compounds. These properties make this enzyme very promising bioremediation tool for environmental applications. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Notes: 502XH xD;Times Cited:0 xD;Cited References Count:43
T Ott, J Sullivan, E K James, E Flemetakis, C Gunther, Y Gibon, C Ronson, M Udvardi (2009)  Absence of Symbiotic Leghemoglobins Alters Bacteroid and Plant Cell Differentiation During Development of Lotus japonicus Root Nodules   Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 22: 7. 800-808  
Abstract: During development of legume root nodules, rhizobia and their host plant cells undergo profound differentiation, which is underpinned by massive changes in gene expression in both symbiotic partners. Oxygen concentrations in infected and surrounding uninfected cells drop precipitously during nodule development. To assess what effects this has on plant and bacterial cell differentiation and gene expression, we used a leghemoglobin-RNA-interference (LbRNAi) line of Lotus japonicus, which is devoid of leghemoglobins and has elevated levels of free-oxygen in its nodules. Bacteroids in LbRNAi nodules showed altered ultrastructure indicating changes in bacterial differentiation. Transcript analysis of 189 plant and 192 bacterial genes uncovered many genes in both the plant and bacteria that were differentially regulated during nodulation of LbRNAi plants compared with the wild type (containing Lb and able to fix nitrogen). These included fix and nif genes of the bacteria, which are involved in microaerobic respiration and nitrogen fixation, respectively, and plant genes involved in primary and secondary metabolism. Metabolite analysis revealed decreased levels of many amino acids in nodules of LbRNAi plants, consistent with the defect in symbiotic nitrogen fixation of this line.
Notes: 457XI xD;Times Cited:0 xD;Cited References Count:74
E D Kouri, N E Labrou, S D Garbis, K I Kalliampakou, C Stedel, M Dimou, M K Udvardi, P Katinakis, E Flemetakis (2009)  Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of the Parvulin-Type PPIases in Lotus japonicus   Plant Physiology 150: 3. 1160-1173  
Abstract: The cis/trans isomerization of the peptide bond preceding proline is an intrinsically slow process, although important in many biological processes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In vivo, this isomerization is catalyzed by peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerases (PPIases). Here, we present the molecular and biochemical characterization of parvulin-type PPIase family members of the model legume Lotus japonicus, annotated as LjPar1, LjPar2, and LjPar3. Although LjPar1 and LjPar2 were found to be homologous to PIN1 (Protein Interacting with NIMA)-type parvulins and hPar14 from human, respectively, LjPar3 represents a novel multidomain parvulin, apparently present only in plants, that contains an active carboxyl-terminal sulfurtransferase domain. All Lotus parvulins were heterologously expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and purified protein verification measurements used a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based proteomic method. The biochemical characterization of the recombinant Lotus parvulins revealed that they possess PPIase activity toward synthetic tetrapeptides, although they exhibited different substrate specificities depending on the amino acid amino terminal to proline. These differences were also studied in a structural context using molecular modeling of the encoded polypeptides. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three parvulin genes of Lotus are ubiquitously expressed in all plant organs. LjPar1 was found to be up-regulated during the later stages of nodule development. Subcellular localization of LjPar-enhanced Yellow Fluorescence Protein (eYFP) fusions expressed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf epidermal cells revealed that LjPar1- and LjPar2-eYFP fusions were localized in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus, in contrast to LjPar3-eYFP, which was clearly localized in plastids. Divergent substrate specificities, expression profiles, and subcellular localization indicate that plant parvulin-type PPIases are probably involved in a wide range of biochemical and physiological processes.
Notes: 479XZ xD;Times Cited:1 xD;Cited References Count:61
C Kalloniati, D Tsikou, V Lampiri, M N Fotelli, H Rennenberg, I Chatzipavlidis, C Fasseas, P Katinakis, E Flemetakis (2009)  Characterization of a Mesorhizobium loti alpha-Type Carbonic Anhydrase and Its Role in Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation   Journal of Bacteriology 191: 8. 2593-2600  
Abstract: Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC is a widespread enzyme catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2 to bicarbonate, a reaction that participates in many biochemical and physiological processes. Mesorhizobium loti, the microsymbiont of the model legume Lotus japonicus, possesses on the symbiosis island a gene (msi040) encoding an alpha-type CA homologue, annotated as CAA1. In the present work, the CAA1 open reading frame from M. loti strain R7A was cloned, expressed, and biochemically characterized, and it was proven to be an active alpha-CA. The biochemical and physiological roles of the CAA1 gene in free-living and symbiotic rhizobia were examined by using an M. loti R7A disruption mutant strain. Our analysis revealed that CAA1 is expressed in both nitrogen-fixing bacteroids and free-living bacteria during growth in batch cultures, where gene expression was induced by increased medium pH.L. japonicus plants inoculated with the CAA1 mutant strain showed no differences in top-plant traits and nutritional status but consistently formed a higher number of nodules exhibiting higher fresh weight, N content, nitrogenase activity, and delta C-13 abundance. Based on these results, we propose that although CAA1 is not essential for nodule development and symbiotic nitrogen fixation, it may participate in an auxiliary mechanism that buffers the bacteroid periplasm, creating an environment favorable for NH3 protonation, thus facilitating its diffusion and transport to the plant. In addition, changes in the nodule delta C-13 abundance suggest the recycling of at least part of the HCO3- produced by CAA1.
Notes: 427AS xD;Times Cited:1 xD;Cited References Count:45
A Rogato, E D'Apuzzo, A Barbulova, S Omrane, C Stedel, U Simon-Rosin, P Katinakis, M Flemetakis, M Udvardi, M Chiurazzi (2008)  Tissue-specific down-regulation of LjAMT1;1 compromises nodule function and enhances nodulation in Lotus japonicus   Plant Molecular Biology 68: 6. 585-595  
Abstract: Plant ammonium transporters of the AMT1 family are involved in N-uptake from the soil and ammonium transport, and recycling within the plant. Although AMT1 genes are known to be expressed in nitrogen-fixing nodules of legumes, their precise roles in this specialized organ remain unknown. We have taken a reverse-genetic approach to decipher the physiological role of LjAMT1;1 in Lotus japonicus nodules. LjAMT1;1 is normally expressed in both the infected zone and the vascular tissue of Lotus nodules. Inhibition of LjAMT1;1 gene expression, using an antisense gene construct driven by a leghemoglobin promoter resulted in a substantial reduction of LjAMT1;1 transcript in the infected tissue but not the vascular bundles of transgenic plants. As a result, the nitrogen-fixing activity of nodules was partially impaired and nodule number increased compared to control plants. Expression of LjAMT1;1-GFP fusion protein in plant cells indicated a plasma-membrane location for the LjAMT1;1 protein. Taken together, the results are consistent with a role of LjAMT1;1 in retaining ammonium derived from symbiotic nitrogen fixation in plant cells prior to its assimilation.
Notes: 365AP xD;Times Cited:0 xD;Cited References Count:51
R C Efrose, E Flemetakis, L Sfichi, C Stedel, E D Kouri, M K Udvardi, K Kotzabasis, P Katinakis (2008)  Characterization of spermidine and spermine synthases in Lotus japonicus : induction and spatial organization of polyamine biosynthesis in nitrogen fixing nodules   Planta 228: 1. 37-49  
Abstract: The biosynthesis of the polyamines spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) from putrescine (Put) is catalysed by the consequent action of two aminopropyltransferases, spermidine synthase (SPDS EC: and spermine synthase (SPMS EC: Two cDNA clones coding for SPDS and SPMS homologues in the nitrogen-fixing nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus were identified. Functionality of the encoded polypeptides was confirmed by their ability to complement spermidine and spermine deficiencies in yeast. The temporal and spatial expression pattern of the respective genes was correlated with the accumulation of total polyamines in symbiotic and non-symbiotic organs. Expression of both genes was maximal at early stages of nodule development, while at later stages the levels of both transcripts declined. Both genes were expressed in nodule inner cortical cells, vascular bundles, and central tissue. In contrast to gene expression, increasing amounts of Put, Spd, and Spm were found to accumulate during nodule development and after maturity. Interestingly, nodulated plants exhibited systemic changes in both LjSPDS and LjSPMS transcript levels and polyamine content in roots, stem and leaves, in comparison to uninoculated plants. These results give new insights into the neglected role of polyamines during nodule development and symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF).
Notes: 304AU xD;Times Cited:1 xD;Cited References Count:64
E Flemetakis, R C Efrose, T Ott, C Stedel, G Aivalakis, M K Udvardi, P Katinakis (2006)  Spatial and temporal organization of sucrose metabolism in Lotus japonicus nitrogen-fixing nodules suggests a role for the elusive alkaline/neutral invertase   Plant Molecular Biology 62: 1-2. 53-69  
Abstract: Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in legume nodules is a highly energy demanding process, fuelled by plant-supplied carbohydrates mainly in the form of sucrose. In this study, we have combined molecular and biochemical approaches in order to study the spatial and temporal organisation of sucrose metabolism in nitrogen-fixing nodules of the model legume Lotus japonicus, with an emphasis on the neglected role of alkaline/neutral invertase. For this purpose, a full-length cDNA clone coding for an alkaline/neutral invertase isoform, termed LjInv1, was identified in a L. japonicus mature nodule cDNA libraries. Alkaline/neutral invertase activity was also found to be the predominant invertase activity in mature nodules. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was used in order to study the temporal expression patterns of LjInv1 in parallel with genes encoding acid invertase and sucrose synthase (SuSy) isoforms, and enzymes involved in the subsequent hexose partitioning including hexokinase, phosphoglucomutase (PGM) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI). The spatial organisation of sucrose metabolism was studied by in situ localisation of LjInv1 transcripts and alkaline/neutral invertase activity, and SuSy protein during nodule development. Furthermore, the spatial organisation of hexose metabolism was investigated by histochemical localisation of hexokinase, PGM and PGI activities in mature nodules. The results considered together indicate that alkaline/neutral invertase could contribute to both the Glc-1-P and Glc-6-P pools in nodules, fuelling both biosynthetic processes and SNF. Furthermore, transcript profiling analysis revealed that genes coding for hexokinase and putative plastidic PGM and PGI isoforms are upregulated during the early stages of nodule development, while the levels of transcripts corresponding to cytosolic PGM and PGI isoforms remained similar to uninfected roots, indicating a possible role of LjInv1 in producing hexoses for starch production and other biosynthetic processes in developing nodules.
Notes: 082PR xD;Times Cited:13 xD;Cited References Count:74
C Delis, M Dimou, E Flemetakis, G Aivalakis, P Katinakis (2006)  A root- and hypocotyl-specific gene coding for copper-containing amine oxidase is related to cell expansion in soybean seedlings   Journal of Experimental Botany 57: 1. 101-111  
Abstract: Polyamines are considered to participate in various processes of plant development. In this study, the possible implication of putrescine catabolism by the copper-containing amine oxidases (CuAOs, EC in the development of roots and hypocotyls was examined. For this purpose, two cDNA clones of Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Williams, designated as GmCuAO1 and GmCuAO2, exhibiting extensive similarity with previously characterized CuAO clones from other plants, have been isolated and characterized. The expression of the GmCuAO1 gene is root- and hypocotyl-specific, while GmCuAO2 seems not to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Moreover, the GmCuAO1 gene is predominantly expressed in tissues which are characterized by rapid extension growth, such as the apical segments of etiolated hypocotyls. Using convex and concave segments of the etiolated hypocotyl apical hook it has been demonstrated that GmCuAO1 is strongly expressed in expanding cells of the concave part when exposed to light, while the same pattern is also followed by the activity of enzymes involved in putrescine catabolism. In dark and photoperiodically grown hypocotyls, activity measurements of the enzymes involved in putrescine catabolism have shown that the activity of these enzymes is several-fold higher in rapidly growing tissues. Furthermore, the cellular and tissue distribution of GmCuAO1 gene transcripts in the root axis and in hypocotyls confirmed their abundance in developing tissues and expanding cells. The results provide evidence suggesting that a tissue-specific gene coding for CuAO is correlated with cell expansion in fast-growing tissues of root and hypocotyls.
Notes: 997BE xD;Times Cited:2 xD;Cited References Count:45
M Dimou, E Flemetakis, C Delis, G Aivalakis, K G Spyropoulos, P Katinakis (2005)  Genes coding for a putative cell-wall invertase and two putative monosaccharide/H+ transporters are expressed in roots of etiolated Glycine max seedlings   Plant Science 169: 4. 798-804  
Abstract: Sink tissues depend on the supply of sugars produced by source tissues. Cell-wall invertases (EC are considered to have a pivotal role in supplying sink tissues with carbohydrates via an apoplasmic pathway, while associated monosaccharide/H' transporters take up the produced hexoses. In this study, we characterized genes coding for a putative cell-wall invertase (GmCWINVI) and two putative monosaccharide/H+ transporters (GmMST1 and GmMST2) of Glycine max. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that GmMST1 and GmMST2 are expressed in various plant organs. In situ hybridization revealed that they are expressed in different root tissues. These results propose that different monosacchafide/H+ transporters may play different roles in source and sink organs. In addition, the temporal and spatial expression of GmCWINV1, as was determined by semi-quantitative Rr-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses, was detected in tissues where GmMST1 and GmMST2 were also expressed, indicating that, at least part of the sucrose unloaded from soybean phloem may be hydrolyzed into hexoses before being transported from the apoplasmic space into the respective sink cells. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Notes: 957UY xD;Times Cited:1 xD;Cited References Count:28
S E Tjamos, E Flemetakis, E J Paplomatas, P Katinakis (2005)  Induction of resistance to Verticillium dahliae in Arabidopsis thaliana by the biocontrol agent K-165 and pathogenesis-related proteins gene expression   Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 18: 6. 555-561  
Abstract: The biocontrol bacterium Paenibacillus alvei K165 has the ability to protect Arabidopsis thaliana against Verticillium dahliae. A direct antagonistic action of strain K165 against V dahliae was ruled out, making it likely that K165-mediated protection results from induced systemic resistance (ISR) in the host. K165-mediated protection was tested in various Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants impaired in defense signaling pathways, including NahG (transgenic line degrading salicylic acid [SA]), etr1-1 (insensitive to ethylene), jar1-1 (insensitive to jasmonate), npr1-1 (nonexpressing NPR1 protein), pad3-1 (phytoalexin deficient), pad4-1 (phytoalexin deficient), eds5/sid1 (enhanced disease susceptibility), and sid2 (SA-induction deficient). ISR was blocked in Arabidopsis mutants npr1-1, eds5/sid1, and sid2, indicating that components of the pathway from isochorismate and a functional NPR1 play a crucial role in the K165-mediated ISR. Furthermore, the concomitant activation and increased transient accumulation of the PR-1, PR2, and PR-5 genes were observed in the treatment in which both the inducing bacterial strain and the challenging pathogen were present in the rhizosphere of the A. thaliana plants.
Notes: 928YD xD;Times Cited:31 xD;Cited References Count:35
C Delis, M Dimou, R C Efrose, E Flemetakis, G Aivalakis, P Katinakis (2005)  Ornithine decarboxylase and arginine decarboxylase gene transcripts are co-localized in developing tissues of Glycine max etiolated seedlings   Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 43: 1. 19-25  
Abstract: Unlike other eukaryotes, which synthesize polyamines (PA) only from ornithine, plants possess an additional pathway utilizing arginine as a precursor. In this study, we have identified cDNA clones coding for a Glycine max ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC and an arginine decarboxylase (ADC, EC Expression analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR approach revealed that both genes coding for enzymes involved in putrescine biosynthesis (ODC and ADC) were found in most plant organs examined. Significant expression levels of both genes were detected in root tips and hypocotyls. The spatial distribution of GmODC and GmADC transcripts in primary and lateral roots and hypocotyls revealed that these genes are co-expressed in expanding cells of cortex parenchyma, expanding cells of central cylinder in main roots and in developing tissues and expanding cells of soybean hypocotyls. The data point out a correlation of the expression patterns of GmODC and GmADC gene to certain physiological roles such as organ development and cell expansion. (c) 2004 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Notes: 909WQ xD;Times Cited:9 xD;Cited References Count:42
M Dimou, E Flemetakis, C Delis, G Aivalakis, K G Spyropoulos, P Katinakis (2005)  Co-expression of two sugar transporters in primary and lateral roots of etiolated Glycine max seedlings   Plant Growth Regulation 45: 3. 259-266  
Abstract: Two Glycine max cDNA clones were characterized and designated as GmSUC2 and GmSTP. The encoded proteins were classified, by prediction of membrane topology and sequence homology, as members of the plant sugar porter family of the Major Facilitator Superfamily. The studies on the temporal and spatial accumulation of the corresponding transcripts, using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization methods, revealed a differing but overlapping expression pattern at various source and sink organs of soybean plants. These results, in accordance to the structural variations apparent from the deduced protein sequences imply that the corresponding proteins may possess diverse roles in source and sink organs of soybean plants, as well as in various tissues, during primary and lateral root development.
Notes: 943KQ xD;Times Cited:0 xD;Cited References Count:43
M Gronlund, A Roussis, E Flemetakis, N E M Quaedvlieg, H R M Schlaman, Y Umehara, P Katinaks, J Stougaard, H P Spaink (2005)  Analysis of promoter activity of the early nodulin Enod40 in Lotus japonicus   Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 18: 5. 414-427  
Abstract: Our comparative studies on the promoter (pr) activity of Enod40 in the model legume Lotus japonicus in stably transformed GusA reporter lines and in hairy roots of L. japonicus demonstrate a stringent regulation of the Enod40 promoter in the root cortex and root hairs in response to Nod factors. Interestingly, the L. japonicus Enod40-2 promoter fragment also shows symbiotic activity in the reverse orientation. Deletion analyses of the Glycine max (Gm) Enod40 promoter revealed the presence of a minimal region -185 bp upstream of the transcription start. Stable transgenic L. japonicus reporter lines were used in bioassays to test the effect of different compounds on early symbiotic signaling. The responses of prGmEnod40 reporter lines were compared with the responses of L. japonicus (Lj) reporter lines based on the LjNin promoter. Both reporter lines show very early activity postinoculation in root hairs of the responsive zone of the root and later in the dividing cells of nodule primordia. The LjNin promoter was found to be more responsive than the GmEnod40 promoter to Nod factors and related compounds. The use of prGmEnod40 reporter lines to analyze the effect of nodulin genes on the GmEnod40 promoter activity indicates that LJNIN has a positive effect on the regulation of the Enod40 promoter, whereas the latter is not influenced by ectopic overexpression of its own gene product. In addition to pointing to a difference in the regulation of the two nodulin genes Enod40 and Nin during early time points of symbiosis, the bioassays revealed a difference in the response to the synthetic cytokinin 6-ben-zylaminopurine (BAP) between alfalfa and clover and L. japonicus. In alfalfa and clover, Enod40 expression was induced upon BAP treatment, whereas this seems not to be the case in L japonicus; these results correlate with effects at the cellular level because BAP can induce pseudonodules in alfalfa and clover but not in L. japonicus. In conclusion, we demonstrate the applicability of the described L. japonicus reporter lines in analyses of the specificity of compounds related to nodulation as well as for the dissection of the interplay between different nodulin genes.
Notes: 918VK xD;Times Cited:9 xD;Cited References Count:66
G Aivalakis, M Dimou, E Flemetakis, F Plati, P Katinakis, J B Drossopoulos (2004)  Immunolocalization of carbonic anhydrase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in developing seeds of Medicago sativa   Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 42: 3. 181-186  
Abstract: To investigate the role of carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC during Medicago sativa seed development, the distribution of both proteins was examined using an immunohistological approach. Both enzymes are co-localized in most ovular and embryonic. tissues. In early stages of seed development, both proteins were abundant in embryo and integuments, while at subsequent stages both proteins are accumulated in endosperm, nucellus and integuments. At late stages of seed development when both endosperm and nucellus are degraded, significant accumulation of both proteins was observed in the embryo proper. Chlorophyll was found to accumulate in embryos after the heart stage and reached a maximum at mature stage. It is suggested that CA and PEPC play a role in respiratory carbon dioxide refixation while generating malate to support amino acid and/or fatty acids biosynthesis. (C) 2004 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Notes: 811JQ xD;Times Cited:3 xD;Cited References Count:42
E Flemetakis, R C Efrose, G Desbrosses, M Dimou, C Delis, G Aivalakis, M K Udvardi, P Katinakis (2004)  Induction and spatial organization of polyamine biosynthesis during nodule development in Lotus japonicus   Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 17: 12. 1283-1293  
Abstract: Putrescine and other polyamines are produced by two alternative pathways in plants. One pathway starts with the enzyme arginine decarboxylase (ADC; EC, the other with ornithine decarboxylase (ODC; EC Metabolite profiling of nitrogen-fixing Lotus japonicus nodules, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, revealed a two- to sixfold increase in putrescine levels in mature nodules compared with other organs. Genes involved in polyamine biosynthesis in L. japonicus nodules were identified by isolating cDNA clones encoding ADC (LjADC1) and ODC (LjODC) from a nodule library. Searches of the public expressed sequence tag databases revealed the presence of a second gene encoding ADC (LjADC2). Real-time reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that LjADC1 and LjADC2 were expressed throughout the plant, while LjODC transcripts were detected only in nodules and roots. Induction of LjODC and LjADC gene expression during nodule development preceded symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Transcripts accumulation was maximal at 10 days postinfection, when a 6.5-fold increase in the transcript levels of LjODC was observed in comparison with the uninfected roots, while a twofold increase in the transcript levels of LjADC1 and LjADC2 was detected. At later stages of nodule development, transcripts for ADC drastically declined, while in the case of ODC, transcript accumulation was higher than that in roots until after 21 days postinfection. The expression profile of genes involved in putrescine biosynthesis correlated well with the expression patterns of genes involved in cell division and expansion, including a L. japonicus Cyclin D3 and an a-expansin gene. Spatial localization of LjODC and LjADC1 gene transcripts in developing nodules revealed that both transcripts were expressed in nodule inner cortical cells and in the central tissue. High levels of LjADC1 transcripts were also observed in both nodule and connecting root vascular tissue, suggesting that putrescine and other polyamines may be subject to long-distance transport. Our results indicate that polyamines are primarily involved in physiological and cellular processes involved in nodule development, rather than in processes that support directly symbiotic nitrogen fixation and assimilation.
Notes: 873CE xD;Times Cited:11 xD;Cited References Count:67
N Gaude, H Tippmann, E Flemetakis, P Katinakis, M Udvardi, P Dormann (2004)  The galactolipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol accumulates in the peribacteroid membrane of nitrogen-fixing nodules of soybean and Lotus   Journal of Biological Chemistry 279: 33. 34624-34630  
Abstract: The peribacteroid membrane (PBM) surrounding nitrogen fixing rhizobia in the nodules of legumes is crucial for the exchange of ammonium and nutrients between the bacteria and the host cell. Digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), a galactolipid abundant in chloroplasts, was detected in the PBM of soybean (Glycine max) and Lotus japonicus. Analyses of membrane marker proteins and of fatty acid composition confirmed that DGDG represents an authentic PBM lipid of plant origin and is not derived from the bacteria or from plastid contamination. In Arabidopsis, DGDG is known to accumulate in extraplastidic membranes during phosphate deprivation. However, the presence of DGDG in soybean PBM was not restricted to phosphate limiting conditions. Complementary DNA sequences corresponding to the two DGDG synthases, DGD1 and DGD2 from Arabidopsis, were isolated from soybean and Lotus. The two genes were expressed during later stages of nodule development in infected cells and in cortical tissue. Because nodule development depends on the presence of high amounts of phosphate in the growth medium, the accumulation of the non-phosphorus galactolipid DGDG in the PBM might be important to save phosphate for other essential processes, i.e. nucleic acid synthesis in bacteroids and host cells.
Notes: 844CL xD;Times Cited:15 xD;Cited References Count:51
A Roussis, E Flemetakis, M Dimou, N Kavroulakis, A Venieraki, G Aivalakis, P Katinakis (2003)  Nodulin PvNOD33, a putative phosphatase whose expression is induced during Phaseolus vulgaris nodule development   Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 41: 8. 719-725  
Abstract: We have isolated a full-length cDNA clone, designated as Pvnod33, that is highly expressed during the later stages of Phaseolus vulgaris nodule development. Pvnod33 mRNA encodes a deduced polypeptide of 263 amino acids, showing similarity to a number of putative plant phosphatases-hydrolases. This hypothesis is strengthened by the presence of a conserved motif found in several bacterial and yeast phosphatases. Using reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, we detected that Pvnod33 gene transcripts accumulate at high levels in mature nodules of P. vulgaris, 3 weeks after infection with rhizobia. Pvnod33 is also expressed, albeit at low levels, in nonsymbiotic tissues, including roots, flowers, seedpods, leaves and stems. In situ hybridization indicated that Pvnod33 mRNA is highly abundant in infected cells of nodules 21 d post-infection, in the nodule inner cortex, as well as in the vascular bundle of the adjacent root. Detectable levels of Pvnod33 transcripts were also observed in the xylem and phloem sclerenchymatic cells of other common bean tissues, including uninfected roots, lateral roots and stems. Taking together all these data, we propose that PvNOD33 protein may belong to a novel class of phosphatases widespread in the plant kingdom, possibly involved in carbon metabolism. (C) 2003 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Notes: 712WU xD;Times Cited:2 xD;Cited References Count:26
N Kavroulakis, E Flemetakis, G Aivalakis, P Dahiya, N J Brewin, K Fasseas, P Hatzopoulos, P Katinakis (2003)  Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of carbonic anhydrase in mature soybean root nodules indicates a role in CO2 diffusion   Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 41: 5. 479-484  
Abstract: Tissue distribution of carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC was examined in developing soybean (Glycine max) nodules using an immunohistological approach. The data obtained indicate that in young nodules both CA and PEPC proteins are present in the parenchymatous cells, and at much lower levels, in the central nodular region. In mature nodules, high levels of CA were exclusively present in 2-3 cell layers of the inner cortical region, whereas high levels of PEPC were present both in infected and uninfected cells. Immunogold, localization indicated that, in mature nodules, CA was localized in the cytoplasm of the inner cortical cells and the cell walls of the endodermal cells. These results considered together suggest that in mature nodules, CA may facilitate the diffusion of the excessive CO2, derived from the respired bacteroids, in the rhizosphere. The distribution of CA was examined in mature nodules of soybean, grown hydroponically, in either limiting or non-limiting phosphate concentrations. The data indicated that in plants growing on non-limiting phosphate concentrations, an additional strong signal was found in cortical cells surrounding the nodule vascular bundles. (C) 2003 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Notes: 692ZJ xD;Times Cited:3 xD;Cited References Count:30
E Flemetakis, M Dimou, D Cotzur, R C Efrose, G Aivalakis, G Colebatch, M Udvardi, P Katinakis (2003)  A sucrose transporter, LjSUT4, is up-regulated during Lotus japonicus nodule development   Journal of Experimental Botany 54: 388. 1789-1791  
Abstract: LjSUT4, encoding a putative sucrose transporter, was identified in a Lotus japonicus nodule cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high degree of identity with sucrose transporters from other plants. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the L. japonicus SUT4 gene was expressed at high levels in both roots and nodules. In situ hybridization revealed that, in young nodules, SUT4 mRNA transcripts are present in vascular bundles, inner cortex and both infected and uninfected cells while, in mature nodules, accumulation of transcripts was restricted only in vascular bundles and the inner cortex. The results indicated that LjSUT4 codes for a putative sucrose transporter, and its expression pattern suggests a possible shift in the mechanism of sugar transport during nodule development. The role of this polypeptide in sucrose transport and metabolism is discussed.
Notes: 692MU xD;Times Cited:14 xD;Cited References Count:9
E Flemetakis, M Dimou, D Cotzur, G Aivalakis, R C Efrose, C Kenoutis, M Udvardi, P Katinakis (2003)  A Lotus japonicus beta-type carbonic anhydrase gene expression pattern suggests distinct physiological roles during nodule development   Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Gene Structure and Expression 1628: 3. 186-194  
Abstract: A full-length cDNA clone, designated Ljca1, coding for a beta-type carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC: was isolated from a Lotus japonicus nodule cDNA library. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that Ljca1 codes for a nodule-specific CA, transcripts of which accumulate at maximum levels in young nodules at 14 days post-infection (d.p.i.). In situ hybridization and immunolocalization revealed that Ljca1 transcripts and LjCA1 polypeptides were present at high levels in all cell types of young nodules. In contrast, in mature nodules both transcripts and polypeptides were confined in a few cell layers of the nodules inner cortex. However, the central infected tissue of both young and mature nodules exhibited high CA activity, indicating the presence of additional CA isoforms of plant and/or microbial origin. This was supported by the finding that a putative Mesorhizobium loti CA gene was transiently expressed during nodule development. In addition, the temporal and spatial accumulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC: was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunolocalization. The results suggest that LjCA1 might fulfill different physiological needs during L. japonicus nodule development. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Notes: 717NJ xD;Times Cited:8 xD;Cited References Count:35
E Flemetakis, A Agalou, N Kavroulakis, M Dimou, A Martsikovskaya, A Slater, H P Spaink, A Roussis, P Katinakis (2002)  Lotus japonicus gene ljsbp is highly conserved among plants and animals and encodes a homologue to the mammalian selenium-binding proteins   Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 15: 4. 313-322  
Abstract: We have isolated and characterized a Lotus japonicus gene (Ljsbp) encoding a putative polypeptide with striking homology to the mammalian 56-kDa selenium-binding protein (SBP). cDNA clones homologous to LjSBP were also isolated from soybean, Medicago sativa, and Arabidopsis thaliana. Comparative expression studies in L japonicus and A. thaliana showed that sbp transcripts are present in various tissues and at different levels. Especially in L. japonicus nodules and seedpods and A. thaliana siliques, sbp expression appears to be developmentally up-regulated. sbp Gene transcripts were localized by in situ hybridization in the infected cells and vascular bundles of young nodules, while in mature nodules, low levels of expression were only detected in the parenchymatous cells. Expression of sbp transcripts in young seedpods and siliques was clearly visible in vascular tissues and embryos, while in embryos, low levels of expression were detected in the root epidermis and the vascular bundles. Polyclonal antibodies raised against a truncated LjSBP recombinant protein recognized a polypeptide of about 60 kDa in nodule extracts. Immunohistochemical experiments showed that accumulation of LjSBP occurred in root hairs, in the root epidermis above the nodule primordium, in the phloem of the vasculature, and abundantly in the infected cells of young nodules. Irrespective of the presence of rhizobia, expression of SBP was also observed in root tips, where it was confined in the root epidermis and protophloem cells. We hypothesize that LjSBP may have more than one physiological role and can be implicated in controlling the oxidation/reduction status of target proteins, in vesicular Golgi transport, or both.
Notes: 538MR xD;Times Cited:14 xD;Cited References Count:48
N Kavroulakis, E Flemetakis, G Aivalakis, P Katinakis (2000)  Carbon metabolism in developing soybean root nodules : The role of carbonic anhydrase   Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 13: 1. 14-22  
Abstract: A full-length cDNA clone encoding carbonic anhydrase (CA) was isolated from a soybean nodule cDNA library. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization were performed in order to assess the location of CA transcripts and protein in developing soybean nodules, CA transcripts and protein were present at high levels in all cell types of young nodules, whereas in mature nodules they were absent from the central tissue and were concentrated in cortical cells. The results suggested that, in the earlier stages of nodule development, CA might facilitate the recycling of CO2 while at later stages it may facilitate the diffusion of CO2 out of the nodule system. In parallel, sucrose metabolism was investigated by examination of the temporal and spatial transcript accumulation of sucrose synthase (SS) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) genes, with in situ hybridization. In young nodules, high levels of SS gene transcripts were found in the central tissue as well as in the parenchymateous cells and the vascular bundles, while in mature nodules the levels of SS gene transcripts were much lower, with the majority of the transcripts located in the parenchyma and the pericycle cells of the vascular bundles. High levels of expression of PEPC gene transcripts were found in mature nodules, in almost all cell types, while in young nodules lower levels of transcripts were detected, with the majority of them located in parenchymateous cells as well as in the vascular bundles. These data suggest that breakdown of sucrose may take place in different sites during nodule development.
Notes: 267XV xD;Times Cited:22 xD;Cited References Count:40
E Flemetakis, N Kavroulakis, N E M Quaedvlieg, H P Spaink, M Dimou, A Roussis, P Katinakis (2000)  Lotus japonicus contains two distinct ENOD40 genes that are expressed in symbiotic, nonsymbiotic, and embryonic tissues   Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 13: 9. 987-994  
Abstract: ENOD40, an early nodulin gene, has been postulated to play a significant role in legume root nodule ontogenesis, We have isolated two distinct ENOD40 genes from Lotus japonicus, The transcribed regions of the two ENOD40 genes share 65% homology, while the two promoters showed no significant homology, Both transcripts encode a putative dodecapeptide similar to that identified in other legumes forming determinate nodules, Both ENOD40 genes are coordinately expressed following inoculation of roots with Mesorhizobium loti or treatment with purified Nod factors. In the former case, mRNA accumulation could be detected up to 10 days following inoculation while in the latter case the accumulation was transient. High levels of both ENOD40 gene transcripts were found in nonsymbiotic tissues such as stems, fully developed flowers, green seed pods, and hypocotyls, A relatively lower level of both transcripts was observed in leaves, roots, and cotyledons. In situ hybridization studies revealed that, in mature nodules, transcripts of both ENOD40 genes accumulate in the nodule vascular system; additionally, in young seed pods strong signal is observed in the ovule, particularly In the phloem and epithelium, as well as in globular stage embryos.
Notes: 345YN xD;Times Cited:34 xD;Cited References Count:29
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