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Nader Ale Ebrahim

Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (UM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
al_e_ebrahim@yahoo.com
Nader Ale Ebrahim is a Technology Management PhD candidate in the Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya (UM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. He holds a Master of Science in the mechanical engineering from University of Tehran, Iran.

Journal articles

2013
Hadi Farhadi, Hadi Salehi, Melor Md Yunus, Arezoo Aghaei Chadegani, Maryam Farhadi, Masood Fooladi, Nader Ale Ebrahim (2013)  Does it Matter Which Citation Tool is Used to Compare the h-index of a Group of Highly Cited Researchers?   Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 7: 4. 198-202  
Abstract: h-index retrieved by citation indexes (Scopus, Google scholar, and Web of Science) is used to measure the scientific performance and the research impact studies based on the number of publications and citations of a scientist. It also is easily available and may be used for performance measures of scientists, and for recruitment decisions. The aim of this study is to investigate the difference between the outputs and results from these three citation databases namely Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science based upon the h-index of a group of highly cited researchers (Nobel Prize winner scientist). The purposive sampling method was adopted to collect the required data. The results showed that there is a significant difference in the h-index between three citation indexes of Scopus, Google scholar, and Web of Science; the Google scholar h-index was more than the h-index in two other databases. It was also concluded that there is a significant positive relationship between h-indices based on Google scholar and Scopus. The citation indexes of Scopus, Google scholar, and Web of Science may be useful for evaluating h-index of scientists but they have some limitations as well.
Notes: Please Cite As: H. Farhadi, H. Salehi, M. M. Yunus, A. Aghaei Chadegani, M. Farhadi, M. Fooladi, and N. Ale Ebrahim, “Does it Matter Which Citation Tool is Used to Compare the h-index of a Group of Highly Cited Researchers?,” Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 198-202, March, 2013.
Masood Fooladi, Hadi Salehi, Melor Md Yunus, Maryam Farhadi, Arezoo Aghaei Chadegani, Hadi Farhadi, Nader Ale Ebrahim (2013)  Does Criticism Overcome the Praises of Journal Impact Factor?   Asian Social Science 9: 5. 176-182  
Abstract: Journal impact factor (IF) as a gauge of influence and impact of a particular journal comparing with other journals in the same area of research, reports the mean number of citations to the published articles in particular journal. Although, IF attracts more attention and being used more frequently than other measures, it has been subjected to criticisms, which overcome the advantages of IF. Critically, extensive use of IF may result in destroying editorial and researchers’ behaviour, which could compromise the quality of scientific articles. Therefore, it is the time of the timeliness and importance of a new invention of journal ranking techniques beyond the journal impact factor.
Notes: Please Cite As: M. Fooladi, H. Salehi, M. M. Yunus, M. Farhadi, A. Aghaei Chadegani, H. Farhadi, and N. Ale Ebrahim, “Does Criticisms Overcome the Praises of Journal Impact Factor?,” Asian Social Science vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 176-182, April 27, 2013.
Arezoo Aghaei Chadegani, Hadi Salehi, Melor Md Yunus, Hadi Farhadi, Masood Fooladi, Maryam Farhadi, Nader Ale Ebrahim (2013)  A Comparison between Two Main Academic Literature Collections : Web of Science and Scopus Databases   Asian Social Science 9: 5. 18-26  
Abstract: Nowadays, the world’s scientific community has been publishing an enormous number of papers in different scientific fields. In such environment, it is essential to know which databases are equally efficient and objective for literature searches. It seems that two most extensive databases are Web of Science and Scopus. Besides searching the literature, these two databases used to rank journals in terms of their productivity and the total citations received to indicate the journals impact, prestige or influence. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive comparison of these databases to answer frequent questions which researchers ask, such as: How Web of Science and Scopus are different? In which aspects these two databases are similar? Or, if the researchers are forced to choose one of them, which one should they prefer? For answering these questions, these two databases will be compared based on their qualitative and quantitative characteristics.
Notes: Please cite as: A. Aghaei Chadegani, H. Salehi, M. M. Yunus, H. Farhadi, M. Fooladi, M. Farhadi, and N. Ale Ebrahim, “A Comparison between Two Main Academic Literature Collections: Web of Science and Scopus Databases,” Asian Social Science vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 18-26, April 27, 2013.
Nader Ale Ebrahim (2013)  Introduction to the Research Tools Mind Map   Research World 10: 4. 1-3 June  
Abstract: With the increasing use of information and communications technology (ICT), researchers are able to use computer software tools to find, organise, manipulate, analyse, and share relevant information. However, there are hundreds of such tools to select from, for various research-related uses. I have collected over 700 tools that can help researchers do their work efficiently. It is assembled as an interactive Web-based mind map, titled Research Tools, which is updated periodically. Created using the MindMeister software platform, Research Tools provides a convenient interface with zoom in/out, screen drag, and other user-friendly features. Being a mind map, Research Tools consists of a hierarchical set of nodes. It has four main nodes: (1) Searching the literature, (2) Writing a paper, (3) Targeting suitable journals, and (4) Enhancing visibility and impact, and six auxiliary nodes. In the mind map, each parent node has several child nodes associated with it, which can be accessed by clicking on the plus (+) sign. Several free tools can be found in the child nodes. Some paid tools are also included. The four main nodes are described below, listing some tools as examples. In the mind map, a green tick sign indicates my preference for some tools. Users can access the tools by clicking on the arrow sign that appears next to the tool title.
Notes: 4
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Hadi Salehi, Mohamed Amin Embi, Farid Habibi Tanha, Hossein Gholizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Motahar, Ali Ordi (2013)  Effective Strategies for Increasing Citation Frequency   International Education Studies 6: 11. 93-99  
Abstract: Due to the effect of citation impact on The Higher Education (THE) world university ranking system, most of the researchers are looking for some helpful techniques to increase their citation record. This paper by reviewing the relevant articles extracts 33 different ways for increasing the citations possibilities. The results show that the article visibility has tended to receive more download and citations. This is probably the first study to collect over 30 different ways to improve the citation record. Further study is needed to explore and expand these techniques in specific fields of study in order to make the results more precisely.
Notes:
2012
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Salwa Hanim Abdul Rashid, Zahari Taha (2012)  Technology Use in the Virtual R&D Teams   American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 5: 1. 9-14 01  
Abstract: Problem statement: Although, literature proves the importance of the technology role in the effectiveness of virtual Research and Development (R&D) teams for new product development. However, the factors that make technology construct in a virtual R&D team are still ambiguous. The manager of virtual R&D teams for new product development does not know which type of technology should be used. Approach: To address the gap and answer the question, the study presents a set of factors that make a technology construct. The proposed construct modified by finding of the field survey (N = 240). We empirically examine the relationship between construct and its factors by employing the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). A measurement model built base on the 19 preliminary factors that extracted from literature review. The result shows 10 factors out of 19 factors maintaining to make technology construct. Results: These 10 technology factors can be grouped into two constructs namely Web base communication and Web base data sharing. The findings can help new product development managers of enterprises to concentrate in the main factors for leading an effective virtual R&D team. In addition, it provides a guideline for software developers as well. Conclusion: The second and third generation technologies are now more suitable for developing new products through virtual R&D teams. %< Originally was a conference paper "Ale Ebrahim N., Ahmed S., Abdul Rashid S.H., Taha Z. (2011) Managing Communication in New Product Development Process: Virtual R&D Teams and Information Technology, United Kingdom - Malaysia - Ireland Engineering Science Conference 2011 (UMIES 2011) University of Malaya Press, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 495-502."
Notes: ALE EBRAHIM, N., AHMED, S., ABDUL RASHID, S. H. & TAHA, Z. 2012. Technology Use in the Virtual R&D Teams. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 5, 9-14.
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Salwa Hanim Abdul Rashid, Zahari Taha (2012)  Effective Virtual Teams for New Product Development   Scientific Research and Essay 7: 21. 1971-1985  
Abstract: At present, the existing literature shows that the factors which influence the effectiveness of virtual teams for new product development are still ambiguous. To address this problem, a research design was developed, which includes detailed literature review, preliminary model and field survey. From literature review, the factors which influence the effectiveness of virtual teams are identified and these factors are modified using a field survey. The relationship between knowledge workers (people), process and technology in virtual teams is explored in this study. The results of the study suggest that technology and process are tightly correlated and need to be considered early in virtual teams. The use of software as a service, web solution, report generator and tracking system should be incorporated for effectiveness virtual teams.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Salwa Hanim Abdul Rashid, Zahari Taha, M A Wazed (2012)  Virtual Collaborative R&D Teams in Malaysia Manufacturing SMEs   Advanced Materials Research 433-440: 1653-1659  
Abstract: This paper presents the results of empirical research conducted during March to September 2009. The study focused on the influence of virtual research and development (R&D) teams within Malaysian manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The specific objective of the study is better understanding of the application of collaborative technologies in business, to find the effective factors to assist SMEs to remain competitive in the future. The paper stresses to find an answer for a question “Is there any relationship between company size, Internet connection facility and virtuality?”. The survey data shows SMEs are now technologically capable of performing the virtual collaborative team, but the infrastructure usage is less. SMEs now have the necessary technology to begin the implementation process of collaboration tools to reduce research and development (R&D) time, costs and increase productivity. So, the manager of R&D should take the potentials of virtual teams into account.
Notes: Materials Science and Information Technology
M A Wazed, S Ahmed, Y Nukman, Nader Ale Ebrahim (2012)  Models for Component Commonality in Multistage Production   Applied Mechanics and Materials 110-116: 258-266 10  
Abstract: Use of common parts for different products (commonality) is important methods for managing product variety and preserving competitiveness in the age of mass customization and supply chain competition. In literature, the advantages of inclusion of common components in a product family are well established. Unfortunately, most of the works have been conducted via simulation or conceptual thinking. The mathematical models in the premises are not adequate for production, planning and control in multistage production. This paper focuses on the advancement of venerable manufacturing resources planning models by incorporating the part commonality concept in a multiproduct, multi-period and multistage manufacturing system under a deterministic situation. The models are validated with established MRPII models. The material requirement schedule for the basic MRP II and proposed models are compared. It is really a good matching shown between the two schedules. The later bearing additional information of the location where to be available the parts in a time frame. The effects of commonality on cost, capacity and requirement schedule are discussed based on the outcomes of the mathematical models executed with the available live data. %< need revised
Notes: WAZED, M. A., AHMED, S., NUKMAN, Y. & ALE EBRAHIM, N. 2012. Models for Component Commonality in Multistage Production. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 110-116, 258-266.
2011
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Salwa Hanim Abdul Rashid, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2011)  The Effectiveness of Virtual R&D Teams in SMEs : Experiences of Malaysian SMEs   Industrial Engineering and Management Systems 10: 2. 109-114 06  
Abstract: The number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), especially those involved with research and development (R&D) programs and employed virtual teams to create the greatest competitive advantage from limited labor are increasing. Global and localized virtual R&D teams are believed to have high potential for the growth of SMEs. Due to the fast-growing complexity of new products coupled with new emerging opportunities of virtual teams, a collaborative approach is believed to be the future trend. This research explores the effectiveness of virtuality in SMEs’ virtual R&D teams. Online questionnaires were emailed to Malaysian manufacturing SMEs and 74 usable questionnaires were received, representing a 20.8 percent return rate. In order to avoid biases which may result from pre-suggested answers, a series of open-ended questions were retrieved from the experts. This study was focused on analyzing an open-ended question, whereby four main themes were extracted from the experts’ recommendations regarding the effectiveness of virtual teams for the growth and performance of SMEs. The findings of this study would be useful to product design managers of SMEs in order to realize the key advantages and significance of virtual R&D teams during the new product development (NPD) process. This in turn, leads to increased effectiveness in new product development's procedure. %< This paper presented and published in the APIEMS2010 conference in advance. The 11th Asia Pacific Industrial Engineering and Management Systems Conference 2010 (APIEMS 2010) Melaka, Malaysia University of Malaya Press 1-6 December 7-10 978-967-5148-80-4 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 2010 http://works.bepress.com/aleebrahim/36/ http://aleebrahim.com/Conferenc%20Papers/The%20Effectiveness%20of%20Virtual%20R%20&%20D%20Teams%20in%20SMEs.pdf http://www.apiems.net/archive/apiems2010/pdf/SE/211.pdf
Notes:
Ale Ebrahim, Nader Shamsuddin Ahmed Zahari Taha (2011)  Virtual R&D Teams : A potential growth of education-industry collaboration   Academic Leadership Journal 9: 4. 1-5  
Abstract: Introduction: With the advent of the global economy and high-speed Internet, online collaboration is fast becoming the norm in education and industry [1]. Information technology (IT) creates many new inter-relationships among businesses, expands the scope of industries in which a company must compete to achieve the competitive advantage. Information systems and technology allow companies to coordinate their activities in distant geographic locations [2]. IT is providing the infrastructure necessary to support the development of new collaboration forms among industry and education. Virtual research and development (R&D) teams represent one such relational form, one that could revolutionize the workplace and provide organizations with unprecedented levels of flexibility and responsiveness [3-4].
Notes: ALE EBRAHIM, N., AHMED, S. & TAHA, Z. 2011. Virtual Teams and Management Challenges. Academic Leadership Journal, 9, 1-7.
Ale Ebrahim, Nader Shamsuddin Ahmed Zahari Taha (2011)  Virtual Teams and Management Challenges   Academic Leadership Journal 9: 3. 1-7  
Abstract: Introduction: Collaboration is becoming increasingly important in creating the knowledge that makes business more competitive. Virtual teams are growing in popularity [1] and many organizations have responded to their dynamic environments by introducing virtual teams. Additionally, the rapid development of new communication technologies such as the Internet has accelerated this trend so that today, most of the larger organization employs virtual teams to some degree [2]. A growing number of flexible and adaptable organizations have explored the virtual environment as one means of achieving increased responsiveness [3]. Howells et al. [4] state that the shift from serial to simultaneous and parallel working has become more commonplace. Based on conventional information technologies and Internet-based platforms virtual environments may be used to sustain companies’ progress through virtual interaction and communication.
Notes: ALE EBRAHIM, N., AHMED, S. & TAHA, Z. 2011. Virtual R&D Teams: A potential growth of education-industry collaboration. Academic Leadership Journal, 9, 1-5.
2010
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2010)  Virtual R&D Teams and SMEs Growth: A Comparative Study between Iranian and Malaysian SMEs   African Journal of Business Management 4: 11. 2368-2379 September  
Abstract: This paper explores potential advantages of using virtual teams for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with a comprehensive review on various aspects of virtual teams. Based on the standing of the pertinent literatures, attempt has been made to study the aspects by online survey method in Iran and Malaysia. In both countries, SMEs play an important role in their economies, employments, and capacity building. Virtual R&D team can be one of the means to increase SMEs efficiency and competitiveness in their local as well as global markets. In this context, surveys have been conducted to evaluate the effects of virtuality to the growth of SMEs. The study addresses some differences between two countries in engaging virtual research and development (R&D) teams in their SMEs. It is observed that there is a significant difference between the SMEs turnover that employed virtual team and that did not employ the virtual team. The way for further studies and recommend improvements are proposed.
Notes: Critical Factors for New Product Developments in SMEs Virtual Team Nader Ale Ebrahim University of Malaya - Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Faculty of Engineering Shamsuddin Ahmed University of Malaya (UM) Zahari Taha University of Malaya (UM) African Journal of Business Management Vol. 4(11), pp. 2247-2257, 4 September, 2010
M R R R Raval, Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2010)  WORK TOGETHER… WHEN APART CHALLENGES AND WHAT IS NEED FOR EFFECTIVE VIRTUAL TEAMS   Journal of Information, Knowledge and Research in Business Management and Administration 1: 1. 1-3 October  
Abstract: Increasingly competitive global markets and accelerating technological changes have increased the need for people to contact via electronic medium to have daily updates, the people those who could not able to meet face to face every day. Those who contact via electronic medium i.e. Virtual Team, are having number of benefit but to achieve these potential benefits, however, leaders need to overcome liabilities inherent in the lack of direct contact among team members and managers. Team members may not naturally know how to interact effectively across space and time. By this paper author try to throw some lights on the challenges that virtual team faces and try to elaborate what is needed for Virtual Team.
Notes: JIKBMA
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2010)  SMEs; Virtual research and development (R&D) teams and new product development : A literature review   International Journal of the Physical Sciences 5: 7. 916–930 07  
Abstract: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are indeed the engines of global economic growth. Their continued growth is a major subject for the economy and employment of any country. Towards that end, virtual research and development (R&D) could be a viable option to sustain and ease the operations of SMEs. However, literature shows there has not been a great deal of research into the diverse characteristic of virtual R&D teams in SMEs. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on different aspects of virtual R&D teams collected from the reputed publications. The purpose of the literature review is to provide an outline on the structure and dynamics of R&D collaboration in SMEs. Specifying the rationale and relevance of virtual teams, the relationship between virtual R&D team for SMEs and new product development (NPD) has been examined. It concludes with identifying the gaps and feebleness in the existing literature and calls for future research in this area. It is argued to form of virtual R&D team deserves consideration at top level management for venturing into the new product development within SMEs.
Notes: ISI indexed
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2010)  Critical Factors for New Product Developments in SMEs Virtual Team   African Journal of Business Management 4: 11. 2247-2257 September  
Abstract: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are considered as an engine for economic growth all over the world and especially for developing countries. During the past decade, new product development (NPD) has increasingly been recognized as a critical factor in ensuring the continued survival of SMEs. On the other hand, the rapid rate of market and technological changes has accelerated in the past decade, so this turbulent environment requires new methods and techniques to bring successful new products to the marketplace. Virtual team can be a solution to answer the requested demand. However, literature have shown no significant differences between traditional NPD and virtual NPD in general, whereas NPD in SME’s virtual team has not been systematically investigated in developing countries. This paper aims to bridge this gap by first reviewing the NPD and its relationship with virtuality and then identifies the critical factors of NPD in virtual teams. The statistical method was utilized to perform the required analysis of data from the survey. The results were achieved through factor analysis at the perspective of NPD in some Malaysian and Iranian manufacturing firms (N = 191). The 20 new product development factors were grouped into five higher level constructs. It gives valuable insight and guidelines, which hopefully will help managers of firms in developing countries to consider the main factors in NPD.
Notes:
2009
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2009)  Modified Stage-Gate : A Conceptual Model of Virtual Product Development Process   African Journal of Marketing Management 1: 9. 211-219 12  
Abstract: In today’s dynamic marketplace, manufacturing companies are under strong pressure to introduce new products for long-term survival with their competitors. Nevertheless, every company cannot cope up progressively or immediately with the market requirements due to knowledge dynamics being experienced in the competitive milieu. Increased competition and reduced product life cycles put force upon companies to develop new products faster. In response to these pressing needs, there should be some new approach compatible in flexible circumstances. This paper presents a solution based on the popular Stage-Gate system, which is closely linked with virtual team approach. Virtual teams can provide a platform to advance the knowledge-base in a company and thus to reduce time-to-market. This article introduces conceptual product development architecture under a virtual team umbrella. The paper describes all the major aspects of new product development (NPD), NPD process and its relationship with virtual teams, Stage-Gate system finally presents a modified Stage-Gate system to cope up with the changing needs. It also provides the guidelines for the successful implementation of virtual teams in new product development.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2009)  Innovation and R&D Activities in Virtual Team   European Journal of Scientific Research 34: 3. 297-307  
Abstract: Innovation plays a central role in economic development, at the regional and national level. In the competitive environment companies are obliged to produce more rapidly, more effectively and more efficiently in new product development, which is a result of research and development (R&D) activities. It is necessary for them to put together different capabilities and services with the goal, through cooperation between suppliers and customers, service providers and scientific institutions to achieve innovations of high quality. Depending on the type of industry, the type of business, the type of innovation and the strategic objectives that have been set, firms will regularly have to modify the way in which their R&D and innovation are organized. Nowadays, shift from serial to simultaneous and parallel working in innovation has become more commonplace. Literatures have shown that collaboration is as a meta-capability for innovation. By a comprehensive reviewing of literature this article after define virtual teams and its characteristics, addressing virtual environment innovation and the relationship to R&D activities. Finally conclude that innovation cannot be successful, unless the knowledge and information in the R&D project are effectively captured, shared and internalized by the R&D project’s virtual team members.
Notes: European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.34 No.3 (2009), pp.297-307 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2009 EJSR RANKS 43rd AMONG TOP 50 Scientific Journals in Austria
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2009)  Virtual R & D teams in small and medium enterprises : A literature review   Scientific Research and Essay 4: 13. 1575–1590 12  
Abstract: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are the driving engine behind economic growth. While SMEs play a critical role in generating employment and supporting trade, they face numerous challenges, the prominent among them are the need to respond to fasting time-to-market, low-cost and rapid solutions to complex organizational problems. Towards that end, research and development (R & D) aspect deserves particular attention to promote and facilitate the operations of SMEs. Virtual R & D team could be a viable option. However, literature shows that virtual R & D teaming in SMEs is still at its infancy. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on different aspects of virtual R & D teams collected from the reputed publications. The purpose of the state-of-the-art literature review is to provide an overview on the structure and dynamics of R & D collaboration in SMEs. Specifying the foundation and importance of virtual teams, the relationship between virtual R & D team and SMEs has been examined. It concludes with the identification of the gaps in the existing literatures and calls for future research. It is argued that setting-up an infrastructure for virtual R & D team in SMEs still requires a large amount of engineering efforts and deserves consideration at top level management.
Notes: ISI Indexed
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2009)  Virtual Teams : a Literature Review   Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 3: 3. 2653-2669  
Abstract: In the competitive market , virtual teams represent a growing response to the need for fasting time-to- market, low-cost and rapid solutions to complex organizational problems. Virtual teams enable organizations to pool the talents and expertise of employees and non-employees by eliminating time and space barriers . Nowadays, companies are heavily investing in virtual team to enhance their performance and competitiveness. Despite virtual teams growing prevalence, relatively little is known about this new form of team. Hence the study offers an extensive literature review with definitions o f virtual teams and a structured analysis of the present body of knowledge of virtual teams. First, we distinguish virtual teams from conventional teams , different types of virtual teams to identify where current knowledge applies. Second, we distinguish what is needed for effective virtual team considering the people, process and technology point of view and underlying characteristics of virtual teams and challenges they entail. Finally, we have identified an d extended 12 key factors that need to be considered, and describes a methodology focused on supporting virtual team working, with a new approach that has not been specifically addressed in the existing literature and some guide line for future research extracted.
Notes: Aust. j. basic appl. sci. ISI indexed
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2009)  Virtual Teams for New Product Development: An Innovative Experience for R&D Engineers   European Journal of Educational Studies 1: 3. 109-123 10  
Abstract: New interaction tools such as internet allow companies to gain valuable input from research and development (R&D) engineers via virtual teams. Consequently, engineers also get more expertise in diminutive timeframes. Virtual R&D teams present the key impetus to the technology acquisition process. The present knowledge-economy era is characterized by short product life-cycles. Virtual R&D teams may reduce time-to-market, make available a large pool of new product know-how and provide greater flexibilities, which are the key success factors in a competitive market. This comprehensive review contains almost 100 references and covers the recent literature with emphasis on the topic. The review has focused on authentic and reputed publications and extracts the results. This article presents the type of virtual teams and their main features and explains how virtual R&D team can play a prominent role in developing new products. The article is evolved future study guideline and also illustrates how to apply virtual interaction tools and integrate engineers into the innovation process. Management of virtual R&D teams in new product development (NPD) processes in an innovative, effective and efficient is of a high importance, but the issue has been poorly addressed in the previous studies. Findings show that virtual R&D team provides valuable input for new product development and R&D engineers are able to attain virtual experience.
Notes:

Conference papers

2011
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Salwa Hanim Abdul Rashid, Zahari Taha (2011)  Managing Communication in New Product Development Process : Virtual R&D Teams and Information Technology   In: United Kingdom - Malaysia - Ireland Engineering Science Conference 2011 (UMIES 2011) 495-502 University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: University of Malaya Press  
Abstract: Literature proves the importance of the role of information technology in increasing the effectiveness of virtual R&D teams’ communication for new product development. However, the factors that make information technology construct in a virtual R&D team are still ambiguous. Managers of virtual R&D teams for new product development do not know “which type of technology should be used”. To address the gap and answer the question, the paper presents a set of factors that make a construct that contribute to effective communication strategy for virtual R&D teams. The proposed construct has been modified based on the findings of a field survey. This work empirically examines the relationship between information technology construct and its factors by employing Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). A measurement model is built based on the 19 preliminary chosen factors that have been extracted from literature review. The result shows that 10 factors can make a technology construct. These 10 factors can be grouped into two different constructs, namely Web-based communication and Web-based data sharing. The study findings can help new product developers to concentrate on the main factors for leading effective communications among virtual R&D team members. In addition, this work provides a guideline for software developers to create appropriate tools for virtual R&D teams.
Notes: ALE EBRAHIM, N., AHMED, S., ABDUL RASHID, S. H. & TAHA, Z. Year. Managing Communication in New Product Development Process: Virtual R&D Teams and Information Technology. In: United Kingdom - Malaysia - Ireland Engineering Science Conference 2011 (UMIES 2011) 12-14 July 2011 University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. University of Malaya Press, 495-502.
Nader Ale Ebrahim Shamsuddin Ahmed Salwa Hanim Abdul Rashid Zahari Taha M A Wazed (2011)  Virtual Collaborative R&D Teams in Malaysia Manufacturing SMEs   In: 2nd International Conference on Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Technologies (MIMT 2011) Edited by:Steve Thatcher, Venkatesh. V2-114 - V2-117 Hotel Royal, Singapore:  
Abstract: This paper presents the results of empirical research conducted during March to September 2009. The study focused on the influence of virtual research and development (R&D) teams within Malaysian manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The specific objective of the study is better understanding of the application of collaborative technologies in business, to find the effective factors to assist SMEs to remain competitive in the future. The paper stresses to find an answer for a question “Is there any relationship between company size, Internet connection facility and virtuality?”. The survey data shows SMEs are now technologically capable of performing the virtual collaborative team, but the infrastructure usage is less. SMEs now have the necessary technology to begin the implementation process of collaboration tools to reduce research and development (R&D) time, costs and increase productivity. So, the manager of R&D should take the potentials of virtual teams into account.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Salwa Hanim Abdul Rashid, Zahari Taha (2011)  Knowledge Worker Role in the Virtual R&D Teams for New Product Development : A Measurement Model   In: International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Renewable Energy 2011 (ICMERE2011) 1-5 Chittagong, Bangladesh: Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology  
Abstract: Knowledge workers (KW) play an important role in the effectiveness of virtual R&D teams for new product development. A large amount of KW literature focuses at the individual level and less attention paid on virtual R&D teams with dispersed knowledge workers. From KW point of view, the factors that required for effective virtual teams are unclear. To address this gap, base on the literature review, the paper presents a set of factors that make the preliminary knowledge workers construct with 11 factors. The proposed construct modified by finding of the field survey (N = 240). We empirically examine the relationship between construct and its factors by employing the structural equation modeling (SEM). The result shows 5 factors out of 11 preliminary factors maintaining to make KW construct. The finding can help new product development managers of enterprises to concentrate in the main factors for leading an effective virtual R&D team. In addition, it provides a guideline for software developer to implement the KW perceptions in the collaborative tools. %< need revised
Notes: ALE EBRAHIM, N., AHMED, S., ABDUL RASHID, S. H. & TAHA, Z. Year. Knowledge Worker Role in the Virtual R&D Teams for New Product Development: A Measurement Model. In: International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Renewable Energy 2011 (ICMERE2011), 22- 24 December 2011 Chittagong, Bangladesh. Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology, 1-5.
2010
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2010)  Benefits and Pitfalls of Virtual R&D Teams : An Empirical Study   In: 6th International Communication & Information Technology Management Conference (ICTM 2010) 1-5 Tehran, Iran:  
Abstract: In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of virtual teams in research and development (R&D) are studied. With the globalization of commercial practices and advances in information and communication technologies, increasing numbers of enterprises are establishing cross-functional, geographically distributed virtual teams. Virtual teams in R&D are designed to access external resources and knowledge to maximize the competitive advantage from limited labor and resources. A survey has been conducted on 210 Malaysian and Iranian manufacturing companies, aimed to investigate the characteristics of R&D collaborations and extract the main advantages/disadvantages’ factors of virtual teams. These factors can be a guide line for R&D manager to achieve better performance of virtual teams.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2010)  Envisages of New Product Developments in Small and Medium Enterprises through Virtual Team   In: International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (IEOM2010) 1-10 Dhaka, Bangladesh:  
Abstract: New product development (NPD) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) virtual team has not been systematically investigated in developing countries. Literatures have shown no significant differences between traditional NPD and virtual NPD in general. New product development especially for SMEs virtual team are somewhat lacking in the literature and constitute a research gap. This paper aims to bridge this gap. This study first reviews the NPD and its relationship with virtuality and then identifies the critical factors in definition of NPD in SMEs virtual team. The statistical method was utilized to perform the required analysis of the data from survey. The results are achieved through factor analysis at the perspective of NPD in some of Malaysian and Iranian manufacturing firms. The 20 new product development factors were grouped into five higher level constructs. It gives valuable insight and guidelines which hopefully will help managers of firms in developing countries to consider the main factors in NPD.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Salwa Hanim Abdul Rashid, Zahari Taha (2010)  The Effectiveness of Virtual R&D Teams in SMEs: Experiences of Malaysian SMEs   In: The 11th Asia Pacific Industrial Engineering and Management Systems Conference (APIEMS 2010), 7 – 10 December 2010, Melaka, Malaysia. 1-6 APIEMS Melaka, Malaysia:  
Abstract: The number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), especially those involved with research and development (R&D) programs and employed virtual teams to create the greatest competitive advantage from limited labor are increasing. Global and localized virtual R&D teams are believed to have a high potential for SMEs growth. Due to the fast growing complexity of the new product, coupled with new emerging opportunities of virtual teams, a collaborative approach is believed to be the future trend. This research explores the effectiveness of virtuality in SMEs virtual R&D teams. An online questionnaire emailed to Malaysian manufacturing SMEs and 74 usable questionnaires were received, representing a 20.8 percent return rate. To avoid the bias that may result from pre-suggested answer, a series of open-ended questions asked from expertise. This study based on analyzing an open-ended question; extract four main themes among expertise recommendations on the effectiveness of virtual teams for SMEs growth and performance. These are suitable for SMEs new product design manager to realize the key advantage and importance of virtual R&D teams in the process of NPD, which lead to increase the effectiveness of the new product's procedure.
Notes: # ALE EBRAHIM, N., AHMED, S., ABDUL RASHID, S. H. & TAHA, Z. (2010). The Effectiveness of Virtual R&D Teams in SMEs: Experiences of Malaysian SMEs. In: The 11th Asia Pacific Industrial Engineering and Management Systems Conference (APIEMS 2010), 7 – 10 December 2010, Melaka, Malaysia. 1-6.
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Salwa Hanim Abdul Rashid, Zahari Taha (2010)  Virtual Teams : A New Opportunity to Develop a Business   In: International Conference on Entrepreneurship Across Boundaries 1-5 Section For Co-curricular Courses, External Faculty Electives and TITAS, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.  
Abstract: Virtual teams give many advantages to organizations, including increased knowledge sharing and improve organizational performance. Virtual teams have altered the expectations and boundaries of knowledge worker’s interactions and make a new opportunity to develop the business. In this paper, we present summary results of an online survey. The online questionnaire was emailed by using a simple random sampling method to 356 Malaysian manufacturing small and medium –sized Enterprises (SMEs). The findings of this study show that SMEs in Malaysia are gaining to use virtual teams, and it can be concluded that virtual teams provide a new platform for developing the business in SMEs. Based on the study, we suggest avenues for future research that are important to advancing our understanding of virtual team effects on business growth.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim Shamsuddin Ahmed Salwa Hanim Abdul Rashid Zahari Taha (2010)  The Effectiveness of Virtual R&D Teams in SMEs : Experiences of Malaysian SMEs   In: The 11th Asia Pacific Industrial Engineering and Management Systems Conference 2010 (APIEMS 2010) Melaka, Malaysia: University of Malaya Press  
Abstract: The number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), especially those involved with research and development (R&D) programs and employed virtual teams to create the greatest competitive advantage from limited labor are increasing. Global and localized virtual R&D teams are believed to have a high potential for SMEs growth. Due to the fast growing complexity of the new product, coupled with new emerging opportunities of virtual teams, a collaborative approach is believed to be the future trend. This research explores the effectiveness of virtuality in SMEs virtual R&D teams. An online questionnaire emailed to Malaysian manufacturing SMEs and 74 usable questionnaires were received, representing a 20.8 percent return rate. To avoid the bias that may result from pre-suggested answer, a series of open-ended questions asked from expertise. This study based on analyzing an open-ended question; extract four main themes among expertise recommendations on the effectiveness of virtual teams for SMEs growth and performance. These are suitable for SMEs new product design manager to realize the key advantage and importance of virtual R&D teams in the process of NPD, which lead to increase the effectiveness of the new product’s procedure.
Notes:
2009
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha, Fatimah Ibrahim, Cheen-Onn Chow, Saad Mekhilef (2009)  SMEs and Virtual R&D Teams : A Motive Channel for Relationship between SMEs   In: The International Conference for Technical Postgraduates (TECHPOS 2009) Edited by:IBRAHIM, F., CHOW, C.-O. & MEKHILEF, S.. 1-7 The Legend Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia:  
Abstract: In today’s dynamic marketplace, manufacturing companies are under strong pressure to introduce new products for long-term survival with their competitors. Nevertheless, every company cannot cope up progressively or immediately with the market requirements due to knowledge dynamics being experienced in the competitive milieu. Increased competition and reduced product life cycles put force upon companies to develop new products faster. In response to these pressing needs, there should be some new approach compatible in flexible circumstances. This paper presents a solution based on the popular Stage-Gate system, which is closely linked with virtual team approach. Virtual teams can provide a platform to advance the knowledge-base in a company and thus to reduce time-to-market. This article introduces conceptual product development architecture under a virtual team umbrella. The paper describes all the major aspects of new product development (NPD), NPD process and its relationship with virtual teams, Stage-Gate system finally presents a modified Stage-Gate system to cope up with the changing needs. It also provides the guidelines for the successful implementation of virtual teams in new product development.
Notes: Print ISBN: 978-1-4244-5223-1
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2009)  SMEs : ERP or Virtual Collaboration Teams   In: First Enterprise Resource Planning conference 1-12 Tehran, Iran.:  
Abstract: Small firms are indeed the engines of global economic growth. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) play an important role to promote economic development. SMEs in the beginning of implementing new technologies always face capital shortage and need technological assistance. Available ERP systems do not fulfill the specific requirements of Small firms. SMEs has scarce resources and manpower therefore many SMEs don’t have the possessions to buy and operate an ERP System. On the other hand competition and competitiveness of SMEs have to be strengthened. This paper briefly reviews the existing perspectives on virtual teams and their effect on SMEs management. It also discusses the main characteristics of virtual teams and clarifies the differences aspects of virtual team application in SMEs. After outlining some of the main advantages and pitfall of such teams, it concentrates on comparing of ERP and virtual collaborative teams in SMEs. Finally, it provides evidence for the need of “Software as a Service (SaaS)” where an application is hosted as a service provided to customers across the web for SMEs as an alternative of ERP. It has been widely argued that ERP disadvantage in SMEs such as administrative expenditure and cost, isolated structure, severe lack of software flexibility, insufficient support of SMEs business and high operating cost, lead SMEs to use virtual collaborative team which is net work base solution.
Notes:
Mohammad Ali Shafia, Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2009)  Consideration of the virtual team work and disabled citizens, as promising opportunity providers for the e government infrastructure's formation   In: The Second Conference on Electronic City (e-city 2009) 959-966 Tehran, Iran:  
Abstract: The Information area has revolutionized the workplace. Douglas Kruse, a professor of human resources and the director of the program for disability research at Rutgers University, states that 7% of employed persons with disabilities work 20 hours or more a week from home. While some modern countries have established “virtual teams”, which are said to be comprised of people who are geographically scattered and who work across boundaries of space and time using computer driven communication technologies, it is also true that many developing countries remain structured around conventional face-to-face teams. A motive toward virtual team working may be cost effectiveness. Increasing transport and human resource costs makes face to face contact less attractive unless they are essential. In an environment of urging to move into the direction of governing the activities via electronic moves, consideration of the individuals who deliver their services to the society in the form of virtual teams are of the primary value which should accelerate the E culture while E government is aimed at. By reviewing literature and theories, this paper present the definition and characteristics of virtual teams. A comparison of different types of virtual teams along with the application, strengths and limitations of them regarding as the promising elements of e activities are elaborated. Persons with disabilities are entitled to and capable of the same career options as their non-disabled counterparts and increasing numbers of them are taking advantage of virtual workplaces therefore creating a condition to facilitate the cultivation of e moves in the society.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2009)  A Conceptual Model of Virtual Product Development Process   In: 2nd Seminar on Engineering and Information Technology, (SEIT 2009) 191-196 Universiti Malaysia Sabah Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.:  
Abstract: In today’s dynamic marketplace, companies are under strong pressure to introduce new products for long-term survival with their competitors. Besides, every company cannot cope up progressively or immediately with the market requirements due to knowledge dynamics being experienced in competitive milieu. Increased competition and reduced product life cycles put force upon companies to develop new products faster. In response to this pressing need there should be some new approach compatible in flexible circumstances. This paper presents a solution based on the Stage-Gate system, which is closely linked with virtual team approach. Virtual teams can provide a platform to advance the knowledge-base in a company and thus to reduce time-to-market. This article introduces conceptual product development architecture under a virtual-team umbrella. The paper describes all the major aspects of new product development (NPD), NPD process and its relationship with virtual team, Stage-Gate system and finally presents a modified Stage-Gate system. It also provides the guidelines for the successful implementation of virtual team in new products development.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Mohammad Ali Shafia, Hamid Tahbaz Tavakoli (2009)  Virtual R&D team : Technology Transfer Facilitator   In: IAMOT 2009 -The 18th International Conference on Management of Technology 1-10 Orlando, Florida, USA:  
Abstract: A conceptual model is proposed which facilitate the process of technology transfer by applying a virtual R&D team. The underlying hypothesis is responded to competitive challenges, the complex customer requirements and the high instability on the market. The context of the knowledge-based economy introduces a major shift from serial to simultaneous R&D activities in the way technology transfer is conceived. The traditional model of R&D team work is relies on the visual and face-to-face teams. The complexities involved in organizing face-to-face interactions among team members from one side, and the rapid developments of electronic communication technologies from the other ,caused firms to turn towards employing virtual R&D teams. The paper postulates that in the new perspective, virtual R&D team to be considered as a specific technology transfer means. It depends on the ways firms and other institutions are managing them, in particular the co-evolution of their absorptive capabilities and their technology conveying strategies. To support the theoretical analysis, this paper provides a comprehensive review based on authentic and reputed publications.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2009)  Virtual Teams and Management Challenges   In: 1st Executive MBA Conference Tehran, Iran:  
Abstract: As a result of globalization and advances in information and communication technologies, the increased use of virtual teams in business has become prominent. In the competitive environment companies are obliged to produce more rapidly, more effectively and more efficiently. It is necessary for them to put together different capabilities and services with the goal, through cooperation between suppliers and customers, service providers and scientific institutions to achieve firm’s objective with high quality. Nowadays shift from serial to simultaneous and parallel working in entity has become more commonplace. Literatures have shown that collaboration is as a meta-capability for companies. This article after define a virtual teams and its characteristics, addressing virtual environments and relationship with different challenges which organization should deal them such as management and employee challenges. Finally conclude that managers of company should invest less in tangible assets, but more in virtual team to generate knowledge, and in their employees’ creativity to stimulate incremental innovations in already existing technologies that will directly generate their future competitive advantage. Companies must educate everyone, not just virtual employees, on the virtual team culture but both employees and managers need to understand the dealing aspects with virtual team.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha, Tan Bee Hoon, Shameem Rafik Galea (2009)  Virtuality, innovation and R&D activities   In: 14th International Conference on Thinking (2009 Malaysia) -Theme "Thinking Minds: Nurturing the Design of a Better Future" Edited by:HOON, T. B. & GALEA, S. R.. 515-529 Universiti Putra Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia:  
Abstract: Innovation plays a central role in economic development, at regional and national level. In the competitive environment companies are obliged to produce more rapidly, more effectively and more efficiently in new product development which is a result of research and development (R&D) activities. It is necessary for them to put together different capabilities and services with the goal, through cooperation between suppliers and customers, service providers and scientific institutions to achieve innovations of high quality. Depending on the type of industry, the type of business, the type of innovation and the strategic objectives that have been set, firms will regularly have to modify the way in which their R&D and innovation is organized. Nowadays shift from serial to simultaneous and parallel working in innovation has become more commonplace. Literatures have shown that collaboration is as a meta-capability for innovation. By a comprehensive reviewing of literature this article after define a virtual teams and its characteristics, addressing virtual environments innovation and the relationship to R&D activities. Finally conclude that innovation cannot be successful unless the knowledge and information in the R&D project are effectively captured, shared and internalized by the R&D project’s virtual team members.
Notes:
Mohammad Ali Shafia, Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2009)  INNOVATION PROCESS IS FACILITATED IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT OF R&D TEAMS   In: International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies (EDULEARN09) 2157-2166 Barcelona, Spain:  
Abstract: Innovation is becoming the most important key issue for company's success in the 21st century. In the competitive environment it is necessary for the enterprises to put together different capabilities and services with the goal. It is widely accepted that innovation can be better achieved by working in team particularly in the virtual environments. The employed web services technology, although very popular nowadays but it is still not mature enough, so dealing with it can bring new findings. Virtual teams base on information technology are formed to facilitate transnational innovation processes and it should be noted that innovation has a positive impact on corporate performance if it is well guided. This has the pronounced effect when it comes to the learning issues as the virtual preconditions persist. In this environment the possibility of getting closer to the interest of learner from the new environment raise as the barriers being imposed by the service provider is reduced and the freedom of what is require to learn is improved. Information and communication technology has brought about significant changes in organizations and produced important benefits, including in the areas of innovation which is recognized as a prime source of national competitive advantage. This contribution proposes a conceptual model for understanding and analyzing the process of virtual R&D team as an innovation and technology assimilation facilitator when it comes to the issue of conveying innovative message for learning by individuals. The context of the knowledge-based economy introduces a major shift from serial to simultaneous R&D in the way of idea conception to technology creation is conceived. This paper briefly reviews the existing perspectives on virtual teams and their effect on innovation and technology regarding the learning capability which is being altered. It also discusses the main characteristics of virtual teams and clarifies the different aspects of virtual team application in the topic. To support the theoretical analysis, this paper provides a comprehensive review based on authentic and reputed publications. We argue that scanty research has been conducted to facilitate understanding the problem of systematically governing creative innovation toward a technology through virtual R&D teams in the atmosphere of educating individuals based on what they interest them to learn.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2009)  Virtual R&D Teams : Innovation and Technology Facilitator   In: Engineering Education in 2025 1-14 School of Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran Tehran, Iran: University of Tehran  
Abstract: Innovation is becoming the most important key issue for company’s success in the 21st century. In the competitive environment is necessary for the enterprises to put together different capabilities and services with the goal. It’s a widely accepted that innovation is better achieved by working in team. The employed web services technology, although very popular nowadays but it is still not mature enough, so dealing with it can bring new findings. Virtual teams base on information technology are formed to facilitate transnational innovation processes and it should be noted that innovation has a positive impact on corporate performance. Information and communication technology has brought about significant changes in organizations and produced important benefits, including in the areas of innovation which is recognized as a prime source of national competitive advantage. This contribution proposes a conceptual model for understanding and analyzing the process of virtual R&D team as an innovation and technology assimilation facilitator. The context of the knowledge-based economy introduces a major shift from serial to simultaneous R&D in the way of idea conception to technology creation is conceived. This paper briefly reviews the existing perspectives on virtual teams and their effect on innovation and technology. It also discusses the main characteristics of virtual teams and clarifies the differences aspects of virtual team application in the topic. To support the theoretical analysis, this paper provides a comprehensive review based on authentic and reputed publications. We argue that scanty research has been conducted to facilitate understanding the problem of systematically governing creative innovation toward a technology through virtual R&D teams.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2009)  Virtual Teams for NPD – an Innovative Experience for R&D Engineers   In: International Conference on Advances in Mechanical Engineering 1036-1045 UiTM Concorde Hotel, Shah Alam, Malaysia: University Publication Centre (UPENA), UiTM 2009  
Abstract: New interaction tools such as internet allows companies to gain valuable input from research and development (R&D) engineers via virtual teams. Consequently engineers also get more expertise in diminutive time-frames. Virtual R&D teams present the key impetus to the technology acquisition process. The present knowledge-economy era is characterized by short product life-cycles. Virtual R&D teams may reduce time-to-market, make available a large pool of new product know-how and provide greater flexibilities which are the key success factors in a competitive market. This comprehensive review contains almost 100 references and covers the recent literature with emphasis on topic. The review has focused on authentic and reputed publications and extracts the results. This article presents the type of virtual teams and their main features and explains how virtual R&D team can play a prominent role in developing new products. The article is evolved future study guideline and also illustrates how to apply virtual interaction tools and integrate engineers into the innovation process. Management of virtual R&D teams in new product development (NPD) processes in an innovative, effective and efficient is of a high importance, but the issue has been poorly addressed in the previous studies. Findings show that virtual R&D team provides valuable input for new product development and R&D engineers are able to attain virtual experience.
Notes:
2008
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2008)  Literature, Principle and the basics of Network Value Creation in R&D : The relationship with economy   In: Seventh conference of Industries and Mines R&D Centers- R&D and Network Value Creation IRIB Int'l. Conference Center, Tehran, Iran.:  
Abstract: The internationalization of R&D network is a recent phenomenon. In this knowledge based environment, the driving forces for this phenomenon are digitization, the internet, and high-speed data networks that are keys to address many of the operational issues from design to logistics and distribution. From the other direction to surviving in the highly competitive industry, requires strategies to collaborate with or compete with suitable firms within a network in the New Product Development process. The growing internationalization of R&D activities challenges multinational corporations (MNCs) to formulate technology strategies and manage increasingly diffuse and diverse networks of R&D laboratories and alliances in the context of disparate national institutions. Research and development functions are fundamental drivers of value creation in technology-based enterprises. Successful R&D is a function of invention and R&D network. This paper studies R&D network issues from the perspective of their impact on value creation. It is observed that most of the research activities encourage and support R&D networks and influences in economic development.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2008)  Concurrent Collaboration in Research and Development   In: National Conference on Design and Concurrent Engineering (DECON) 2008 1-4 Melaka, Malaysia:  
Abstract: Integration is the essence of current research and development (R&D) activity in many organizations. Integration can be established in various ways depending on the type, size and intricacy in organizational functions and products. Nevertheless, research and development (R&D) has become an inevitable function in most manufacturing companies in order to develop their own product niches for their survival in the prevailing highly competitive market environment. Research and development functions are fundamental drivers of value creation in technology based enterprises. Of creating and maintaining a vibrant R&D environment, organizations individually or collectively need to incorporate virtual R&D team. A virtual R&D team can introduce new product in less lead time than by conventional R&D working. Therefore, how to increase the possibility of having more successful R&D is a critical issue for enterprises. This paper examines the current approach of collaboration in R&D issues from the perspective of their impact on virtual R&D team in enterprises and compares the findings with the other concepts of concurrent collaboration. By reviewing literature and theories, the paper firstly presents the definition and characteristics of virtual R&D teams. A comparison of different types of virtual R&D teams along with the strengths and limitations of the preceding studies in this area are also presented. It is observed that most of the research activities encourage and support virtual R&D teams applicable to enterprises. Distinctive benefits of establishing virtual R&D team have been enumerated and demand future attention has been indicated in the paper.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2008)  Dealing with Virtual R&D Teams in New Product Development   In: The 9th Asia Pacific Industrial Engineering & Management Systems Conference and the 11th Asia Pacific Regional Meeting of the International Foundation for Production Research 795-806 Department of Industrial Engineering Institut Teknologi Bandung Nusa Dua, Bali - Indonesia:  
Abstract: National and global collaboration in research and development (R&D) is becoming increasingly important in creating the knowledge that makes research and business more competitive. Multinational enterprises have increased their research and development (R&D) investment in different countries. These multiple sites encourage the development of more ideas, due to the varied international backgrounds in global networks and the knowledge spillovers. In order to secure the viability of business processes, services and products R&D teams need to access and retrieve information from as many sources as possible. From the other perspective virtual teams are important mechanisms for organizations seeking to control scarce resources across geographic and other boundaries. Moreover, virtual collaboration has become vital for most organizations. This is particularly true in the context of designing new product and innovative services. In this paper all the major aspects of Virtual R&D team are discussed in technical terms. The paper provides an integral definition and characterization of virtual R&D team. The potential value that is created by virtual R&D teams for new product development is explored. Lastly, pertinent practical guidelines and implications are presented.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha, Ricard Li-Hua, Charles Egbu, Zhongxiu Zhao, Lucy Lu, Cambridge Judge Business School, University of Salford (2008)  New Product Development in Virtual Environment   In: International Conference on Technology Management and Innovation in China: Challenges and Opportunities in the 21st Century 203-218 CAMOT and MOTSC UIBE, Beijing, China:  
Abstract: Purpose - The literature on the topic has evolved exponentially since eight years ago. Relaying on a review of studies published in recent years, this article proposes and discusses a framework which incorporates a set of virtual teams involved in a new product development initiative. Design/methodology/approach – A range of academic and practitioner literature related to virtual teams and virtual new product development is reviewed. What is Virtual New Product Development and what determines its development in manufacturing firms? These two questions are answered. Findings - The decision to use a virtual team is often a necessity and not a choice; being ‘virtual’ is in most cases not an alternative but a requirement. Enterprise may benefit from building and maintain the virtual teams in a number of ways such as achieving higher quality, accessing and capturing dispersed knowledge and skills regarding the multifunctional and multi-use components and modules, electronically unite experts in highly specialized fields, collaborating more productivity at a distance, achieving tight schedules and start quickly, reducing travel time and cost, enabling the recruitment of talented employees, builds diverse teams, promoting proactive employment and finally reducing discrimination in enterprises. Originality/value - The results of an academic literature review were employed to the literature so far has not paid adequate attention to the virtual team activities in NPD. The results highlight several avenues which would help managers and policy makers to better foster cyber new product development and designers to better channel of their efforts in the design and manufacturing domain.
Notes: By China Association for Management of Technology and Management of Technology Study Center, UIBE CAMOT 2008 (China Association for Management of Technology) %< ISI Indexed 2008 International Conference Technology Management and Innovation in China: Challenges and Opportunities in the 21st Century, Books I and Ii
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2008)  R&D Networking and value Creation in SMEs R&D Networking and value Creation in SMEs   In: Seventh conference of Industries and Mines R&D Centers- R&D and Network Value Creation 1-6 IRIB Int'l. Conference Center, Tehran, Iran.:  
Abstract: Research and development (R&D) activities are fundamental drivers of value creation in today’s technology-based Small and Medium enterprises (SMEs). Seemingly, a successful R&D is a task of innovation processes and development of R&D networks with allied companies. There is a perceived lack of understanding regarding the importance of SMEs and their need to continuously enhancing their technological capabilities for the purpose of establishing them in dominant market positions. This article presents R&D network issues from the perspective of their impact on value creation in SMEs. The fundamental trend to enable SMEs towards creation of new knowledge and diffuse in and transfer that to other SME's could be achieved by developing of collaborative environments and networks to increase their innovation capabilities as a single unit as well as the capabilities of the network as a whole through collective learning. SMEs seem to be the appropriate units to behave like network nodes because of their lean structure, adaptability to market evolution, active involvement of versatile human resources, ability to establish sub-contracting relations and good technological level for their products. SMEs not only shape the larger outcome, but also constrain actions of the state and MNCs in demand-responsive, buyer-driven networks. The objective of this article is the notice to creation of a network of SMEs that are geographically dispersed but virtually linked so that the participating members focus on their specialized tasks yet also share their knowledge and experience on resources to create an agile structured and flexible enterprise.
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2008)  Virtual R&D Teams : a Sustainable Infrastructure for Promoting SMEs   In: 2nd Engineering Conference (EnCon 2008) 217-223 Crowne Plaza Riverside Hotel, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia:  
Abstract: small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are a major part of the industrial economies. Their survival and growth has therefore been a prominent issue. Research and development (R&D) enables firms to create new technologies and/or to build on existing technologies obtained through technology transfer. Nowadays unpredictable environment suggests that many firms seek new ways of conducting their business through some kind of R&D activities to make a profit and stay ahead of the competition. To survive in the global economy SMEs have to improve their products and processes exploiting their intellectual capital in a dynamic network of knowledge-intensive relations inside and outside their borders. SMEs need to focus on core competences for efficiency matters; they need to cooperate with external partners to compensate for other competences and resources. Responding to the increasing de-centralization and globalization of work processes, many SMEs have responded to their dynamic environments by introducing virtual teams. Virtual teams are growing in popularity. By a comprehensive literature review this article following define a virtual teams, SMEs and its characteristics, addressing a sustainable infrastructure for promoting SMEs. Finally conclude that managers of SMEs should invest less in tangible assets, but more in the areas of expanding virtual R&D activities which will directly generate their future competitive advantage. Future research need to elaborate the effect of virtual R&D team working on the performance of SMEs.
Notes: Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed and Zahari Taha, Virtual R&D Teams: A Sustainable Infrastructure for Promoting SMEs, CD Proceedings of 2nd Engineering Conference (EnCon) on Sustainable engineering infrastructures development & Management, Crowne Plaza Riverside Hotel, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, 18-19 December 2008, Pages 217-223 (Paper ID: EnCon2008-B-10).
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2008)  Virtual Environments Innovation and R&D Activities : Management Challenges   In: Proceedings of the International Graduate on Engineering and Science (IGCES'08) 116-124 Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Johor Bahru, Malaysia:  
Abstract: Companies will not survive long unless they join a threefold revolution in management itself, innovation, and information technology. Innovation plays a central role in economic development, at regional and national level. In the competitive environment companies are obliged to produce more rapidly, more effectively and more efficiently in new product development which is a result of research and development (R&D) activities. It is necessary for them to put together different capabilities and services with the goal, through cooperation between suppliers and customers, service providers and scientific institutions to achieve innovations of high quality. Depending on the type of industry, the type of business, the type of innovation and the strategic objectives that have been set, firms will regularly have to modify the way in which their R&D and innovation is organized and how information technology should managed. Nowadays shift from serial to simultaneous and parallel working in innovation has become more commonplace. Literatures have shown that collaboration is as a meta-capability for innovation. This article after define a virtual teams and its characteristics, addressing virtual environments innovation and the relationship to R&D activities. Finally conclude that managers of company should invest less in tangible assets, but more in R&D and virtual team to generate knowledge, and in their employees’ creativity to stimulate incremental innovations in already existing technologies that will directly generate their future competitive advantage
Notes:
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Shamsuddin Ahmed, Zahari Taha (2008)  Virtual R&D Teams for NPD in SMEs : Past, Present and Future Trend   In: APCMOTTE2008 (Asia pacific Conference on Management of Technology and Technology Entrepreneurship) 1-10 Melaka ,Malaysia:  
Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive review on different aspects of virtual teams based on authentic and reputed publications. The purpose of the state-of-the-art literature review is to provide an overview of what is known about the structure and dynamics of R&D collaboration in SMEs. SMEs are the backbone of the world business. The focus of the investigation is on virtual R&D teams in SMEs. After providing a definition and importance of virtual teams, research and development (R&D), small and medium enterprises (SME) and new product development (NPD), the relationship between them will be examined. This paper seeks to address some of the gaps in the existing extensive literature on virtual teams as a general and virtual R&D teams in new product development in SMEs, as a concentrate topic. Covering previous literatures, the research gaps derive and propose the way of further studies and recommend are provided. Along extending future research some managerial implication will be discussed. It is argued that the preparation for virtual R&D team working should be given consideration in the management of R&D new product development projects.
Notes: ISBN No. 978-983-42745-1-1
2005
Nader Ale Ebrahim, Maziar Rostamnezhad, Ali Momeni (2005)  Production And Performance Of Heavy Duty CNG   In: ANGVA 2005, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1-13 ANGVA ANGVA 2005, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia:  
Abstract: In recent years, along with the trend toward clean air and less dependency to imported oil products, there has been increasing willing to use substitute fuels in transport industry. Automobile industry is an exhaustive industry bringing development for any country. The industrial capabilities needed for development rest in this branch of industry. The Iranian automobile making companies move in line with this aim. But in recent decades, in addition to development of automobile industry, the pollution too has occupied the minds of the authorities of these companies. Some measures, investments, researches, and exhaustive studies related to the pollution problem have been made to produce an automobile of higher technology and lower pollution.
Notes:
1996
H Shokouhmand, Nader Ale Ebrahim, B D Czejdo, I I Esat, B Trousse, B Shirazi (1996)  Heat transfer from humid air to a two-row direct expansion plate finned tube coils (DX) under condensing conditions   In: Proceedings of the 1996 3rd Biennial Joint Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, ESDA. Part 7 (of 9) 221-228 American Society of Mechanical Engineers Montpellier, France: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Petroleum Division (Publication) PD  
Abstract: Direct Expansion plate finned tube coils (DX) are extensively used in air conditioning systems. If the air flowing over the coil is humid and the coil's temperature is below the dew point, condensation will occur on the fins. In this paper a two-row Direct Expansion plate finned tube coils (DX) in which the tubes are arranged triangular, has been selected for analysis of sensible and latent heats. By applying a two-dimensional analysis on an individual cell of the coil, the governing equations have been derived. These equations have been solved numerically using a finite difference method. The temperature distributions and fin efficiency variation for both wet and dry surface conditions, versus fin pitch, fin material, temperature and humidity of the inlet air flow and Reynolds number, have been determined.
Notes: Conference code: 46123 Export Date: 18 September 2009 Source: Scopus CODEN: ASMPE Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Shokouhmand, H.; Univ of Tehran, Tehran, Iran Sponsors: ASME PD

Presentation

2011
Nader Ale Ebrahim (2011)  How to Conduct a Literature Review   [Presentation]  
Abstract: Outline • Find literature associated with the topic. • Search and analyze the literature. • Evaluate the paper before reading. • Cite literature properly. • Make a summary table of reviewed papers. • Avoid plagiarism. • Write a journal article based on literature review.
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Nader Ale Ebrahim (2011)  How to increase h-index β€œAdvertise and disseminate publications”   [Presentation]  
Abstract: Publishing a high quality paper in scientific journals is a halfway of receiving citation in the future. The rest of the way is advertising and disseminating the publications by using the proper “Research Tools”. Familiarity with the tools allows the researcher to increase his/her h-index in the short time. H-index shows the academicians influences in the specified field of research. Therefore, a person with higher level of h-index has more high quality publications with high amount of citations. This presentation, covers the following topics: Why publish and increase h-index?, Definition of h-index and g-index, Importance of h-index, How to use “Research Tools” Mind Map, Paper title preparation, Selecting keywords, Select the proper journal, Advertise published article, and finally Trace published article citation.
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