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Journal articles

D Comelli, A Nevin, A Brambilla, I Osticioli, G Valentini, L Toniolo, M Fratelli, R Cubeddu (2012)  On the discovery of an unusual luminescent pigment in Van Gogh's painting "les bretonnes et le pardon de pont Aven"   Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing 106: 1. 25-34  
Abstract: Spectrally and lifetime-resolved UV-induced luminescence imaging have been applied to the in situ analysis of Vincent Van Gogh's painting on paper "Les bretonnes et le pardon de pont Aven". The in situ investigation revealed the presence of an unusual microsecond green emission from the white painted areas of the watercolour, and this long-lived emission has not been reported in modern paintings by other authors. In order to attribute and suggest an identification of the luminescent pigment, our analysis was integrated with further measurements on commercially available modern white pigments (zinc white, Lithopone white, Blanc Fixe, zinc sulphide, and copper-doped zinc sulphide) and with an in-depth study of the synthesis processes of zinc-based pigments available at the end of the 19th century. Analysis suggested an attribution of the unusual emission from the Van Gogh painting to a particular variety of zinc sulphide pigment, characterized by the presence of copper impurities which were unintentionally introduced in the crystal matrix during its production. The present study is the first application of lifetime imaging for the mapping of long-lived luminescence from the semi-conductor pigment. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Notes: Export Date: 30 November 2012
L Brambilla, C Riedo, C Baraldi, A Nevin, M C Gamberini, C D'Andrea, O Chiantore, S Goidanich, L Toniolo (2011)  Characterization of fresh and aged natural ingredients used in historical ointments by molecular spectroscopic techniques : IR, Raman and fluorescence   Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 401: 6. 1827-1837  
Abstract: Natural organic materials used to prepare pharmaceutical mixtures including ointments and balsams have been characterized by a combined non-destructive spectroscopic analytical approach. Three classes of materials which include vegetable oils (olive, almond and palm tree), gums (Arabic and Tragacanth) and beeswax are considered in this study according to their widespread use reported in ancient recipes. Micro-FTIR, micro-Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies have been applied to fresh and mildly thermally aged samples. Vibrational characterization of these organic compounds is reported together with tabulated frequencies, highlighting all spectral features and changes in spectra which occur following artificial aging. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy has been shown to be particularly useful for the assessment of changes in oils after aging; spectral difference between Tragacanth and Arabic gum could be due to variations in origin and processing of raw materials. Analysis of these materials using non-destructive spectroscopic techniques provided important analytical information which could be used to guide further study. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Notes: Export Date: 30 November 2012
F Toja, A Nevin, D Comelli, M Levi, R Cubeddu, L Toniolo (2011)  Fluorescence and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for the analysis of iconic Italian design lamps made of polymeric materials   Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 399: 9. 2977-2986  
Abstract: The preservation of design object collections requires an understanding of their constituent materials which are often polymeric blends. Challenges associated with aging of complex polymers from objects with an unknown physical history may compromise the interpretation of data from analytical techniques, and therefore complicate the assessment of the condition of polymers in indoor museum environments. This study focuses on the analysis of polymeric materials from three well-known Italian design lamps from the 1960s. To assess the degree of chemical modifications in the polymers, non-destructive molecular spectroscopic techniques, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopy, have been applied directly on the object surfaces using an optical fiber probe and through examination of micro samples. FTIR spectra of the different polymers, polyvinylacetate (PVAc) for the lamps Taraxacum and Fantasma, and both acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer (ABS) and cellulose acetate (CA) for the lamp Nesso, allowed the detection of ongoing deterioration processes. Fluorescence spectroscopy proved particularly sensitive for the detection of molecular changes in the polymeric objects, as the spectra obtained from the examined lamps differ significantly from those of the unaged reference materials. Differences in fluorescence spectra are also detected between different points on the same object further indicating the presence of different chemical species on the surfaces. With the aid of complementary data from FTIR spectroscopy, an interpretation of the emission spectra of the studied polymeric objects is here proposed, further suggesting that fluorescence spectroscopy may be useful for following the degradation of historical polymeric objects. © Springer-Verlag 2010.
Notes: Export Date: 30 November 2012
D Comelli, A Nevin, G Valentini, I Osticioli, E M Castellucci, L Toniolo, D Gulotta, R Cubeddu (2011)  Insights into Masolino's wall paintings in Castiglione Olona : Advanced reflectance and fluorescence imaging analysis   Journal of Cultural Heritage 12: 1. 11-18  
Abstract: Investigations of wall paintings by Masolino da Panicale in the Baptistery of Castiglione Olona were conducted using a multi-analytical approach, based on in situ fluorescence imaging, multispectral reflectance imaging and non-destructive analysis of a historical cross-section. Fluorescence imaging of wall paintings, mainly focused on the discrimination and identification of organic compounds, has been conducted with a novel approach, which incorporates the use of spectrally-resolved and lifetime-resolved imaging devices, applied together for the first time for the analysis of paintings. Analysis of the UV-induced emissions from the surface of the paintings allowed the documentation of the selective use of a carmine-based red lake, identified using micro-Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Visible reflectance measurements highlighted the distribution and use of different inorganic pigments. Finally, the in situ study, with the support of early 20th century photographs, provided additional information on Masolino's style and revealed details and decorative elements of the painting, which are indiscernible under standard illumination. © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 5
A Brambilla, I Osticioli, A Nevin, D Comelli, C Dandrea, C Lofrumento, G Valentini, R Cubeddu (2011)  A remote scanning Raman spectrometer for in situ measurements of works of art   Review of Scientific Instruments 82: 6.  
Abstract: In conservation science, one of the main concerns is to extract information from an artistic surface without damaging it. Raman spectroscopy has emerged in recent years as a reliable tool for the non-destructive analysis of a wide range of inorganic and organic materials in works of art and archaeological objects. Nevertheless, the technique is still mainly limited to the analysis of micro-samples taken from artistic surfaces. The development of an instrument able to perform non-contact analysis of an area of a few square centimeters aims to further increase the employment of this technique. This paper describes the development of a prototype Raman scanning spectrometer based on a diode laser, a 2D scanning mirror stage and a custom optical system, which can map a surface of 6 cm in diameter at a working distance of 20 cm. The device exhibits collecting optics with a depth of field close to 6 cm, which makes the Raman system suitable for the analysis of non-flat surfaces and three-dimensional objects. In addition, the overall dimensions and weight of the instrument have been limited in order to make the device transportable and, in principle, usable for in situ measurements. Details on the design of the device, with particular emphasis on the collecting optical system, and on results of the characterization tests carried out to assess its performances are reported. Finally, an example of an application involving the identification of pigments from a model painting is presented. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 1
M Thoury, J -P Echard, M Réfrégiers, B Berrie, A Nevin, F Jamme, L Bertrand (2011)  Synchrotron UV-visible multispectral luminescence microimaging of historical samples   Analytical Chemistry 83: 5. 1737-1745  
Abstract: UV-visible luminescence techniques are fre-quently used for the study of cultural heritage materials, despite their limitations for identification and discrimination in the case of complex heterogeneous materials. In contrast to tabletop setups, two methods based on the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-UV-visible emission generated at a bending magnet of a synchrotron source are described. The main advantages of the source are the extended wavelength range attained, the continuous tunability of the source, and its brightness, leading to a submicrometer lateral resolution. Raster-scanning microspectroscopy and full-field microimaging were implemented and tested at the DISCO beamline (synchrotron SOLEIL, France). Investigative measurements were performed on a sample from a varnished musical instrument and a paint sample containing the pigment zinc white (ZnO) in order to illustrate some of the challenges analyzing heterogeneous cultural heritage cross-section samples with the novel imaging approach. The data sets obtained proved useful for mapping organic materials at the submicrometer scale and visualizing heterogeneities of the semiconductor pigment material. We propose and discuss the combined use of raster-scanning microspectroscopy and full-field microimaging in an integrated analytical methodology. Synchrotron UV luminescence appears as a novel tool for identification of craftsmen's and artists' materials and techniques and to assess the condition of artifacts, from the precise identification and localization of luminescent materials. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 10
A Nevin, D Comelli, I Osticioli, G Filippidis, K Melessanaki, G Valentini, R Cubeddu, C Fotakis (2010)  Multi-photon excitation fluorescence and third-harmonic generation microscopy measurements combined with confocal Raman microscopy for the analysis of layered samples of varnished oil films   Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing 100: 3. 599-606  
Abstract: The non-destructive determination of layer structures in works of art remains a significant challenge. Non-linear microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) were employed for characterisation of varnish-media layers in model samples, providing important information regarding the thickness of materials and the identification of different media in depth. Commonly found triterpenoid varnishes mastic and dammar were applied over a single layer of films of linseed oil. Non-linear microscopy of samples was carried out using a 1028-nm femtosecond laser source; both third-harmonic generation signals (THG) and three-photon fluorescence signals (3PEF) of samples were collected in an effort to measure the thickness of mono- and bi-layers; in parallel scans of larger areas were undertaken to assess heterogeneities in samples with spatial resolution of 2 μm. Complementary spectroscopic information from CRM collected with both a 514.5-nm argon-ion and a 785-nm diode lasers coupled with a 100X objective and a motorised stage was carried out. Comparison of C-H stretching regions of Raman spectra allowed the differentiation between different molecular materials and the fingerprint region was employed for the depth profiling of the samples. © Springer-Verlag 2010.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 4
A Nevin, D Comelli, G Valentini, R Cubeddu (2009)  Total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis : Method for the classification of selected resins, oils, and protein-based media used in paintings   Analytical Chemistry 81: 5. 1784-1791  
Abstract: Recent interest in the fluorescence of binding media and varnishes (proteins, oils, and resins) commonly used in paintings is based on the potential for discriminating these organic materials. A useful way of studying the presence of the broad-band fluorescence emissions found in these complex organic materials is fluorescence excitation emission spectroscopy. However, due to the presence of Raman and Rayleigh scattering which may necessitate correction or preprocessing for statistical analysis and visualization, an alternative approach has been adopted for the analysis of different samples of artist materials based on total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Films of selected drying oils, glue, egg, and casein and the resins mastic, dammar, copal, and shellac were analyzed using total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, and an interpretation of the differences between spectra is given. A data reduction method based on the transformation of fluorescence contours extracted from total synchronous fluorescence from Cartesian to polar coordinates is presented and is followed by the comparison of data using multivariate analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Results suggest that the new method can be used to classify samples on the basis of their fluorescence spectra, clearly differentiating oils, resins, and protein-based media into groups. © 2009 American Chemical Society.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 14
P Pouli, A Nevin, A Andreotti, P Colombini, S Georgiou, C Fotakis (2009)  Laser assisted removal of synthetic painting-conservation materials using UV radiation of ns and fs pulse duration : Morphological studies on model samples   Applied Surface Science 255: 9. 4955-4960  
Abstract: In an effort to establish the optimal parameters for the cleaning of complex layers of polymers (mainly based on acrylics, vinyls, epoxys known as Elvacite, Laropal, Paraloid B72, among others) applied during past conservation treatments on the surface of wall paintings, laser cleaning tests were performed with particular emphasis on the plausible morphological modifications induced in the remaining polymeric material. Pulse duration effects were studied using laser systems of different pulse durations (ns and fs) at 248 nm. Prior to tests on real fragments from the Monumental Cemetery in Pisa (Italy) which were coated with different polymers, attention was focused on the study of model samples consisting of analogous polymer films cast on quartz disks. Ultraviolet irradiation is strongly absorbed by the studied materials both in ns and fs irradiation regimes. However, it is demonstrated that ultrashort laser pulses result in reduced morphological alterations in comparison to ns irradiation. In addition, the dependence of the observed alterations on the chemical composition of the consolidation materials in both regimes was examined. Most importantly, it was shown that in this specific conservation problem, an optimum cleaning process may rely not only on the minimization of laser-induced morphological changes but also on the exploitation of the conditions that favour the disruption of the adhesion between the synthetic material and the painting. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 9
E Bernikola, A Nevin, V Tornari (2009)  Rapid initial dimensional changes in wooden panel paintings due to simulated climate-induced alterations monitored by digital coherent out-of-plane interferometry   Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing 95: 2. 387-399  
Abstract: Climate and environmental change may provoke constant microscopic dimensional alterations to organically composed works of art. The complexity of alterations obstructs the classification of destructive effects and sustainable strategies for preservation, and systematic investigation of change requires safe inspection tools, repeatable procedures and non-perturbing approaches. In this paper, a state-of-the-art description on the dimensional monitoring tools for the assessment of the effects of climate fluctuations in paintings is given. Rapid initial start-up reactions of alteration processes that may simulate endangered conditions, which may be encountered during transportation of works of art, are studied. The case of wooden panel paintings is considered here as panels are representative models of inhomogeneous organic construction. The effect of the surface movement of panel painting surfaces due to simulated changes in temperature and relative humidity is characteristic of structural deterioration and as such these effects are primarily monitored in the start-up of the reaction process. The environmentally-provoked spatial alteration is recorded in full-field surface coordinates using optical coherent out-of-plane digital interferometry in a geometry utilizing holographic speckle patterns. Results demonstrate the suitability of the method to follow the start-up simulated process in real time directly from the work of art and to follow the rate of reaction towards equilibrium. The effectiveness of the full surface assessment provided in real time is presented and provides significant advantages compared to alternative techniques which are based on fragmented solutions. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 4
C D'Andrea, A Nevin, A Farina, A Bassi, R Cubeddu (2009)  Assessment of variations in moisture content of wood using time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy   Applied Optics 48: 4. B87-B93  
Abstract: Time-resolved spectroscopy using a pulsed supercontinuum source was employed for the assessment of moisture content (MC) in dry wood. The MC of wood at different relative humidities between 94% and 12% has been monitored. Following curve fitting, absorption spectra between 700 and 100nm of samples suggest that differences in the MC of wood are appreciable at around 970 nm. Further, dynamic changes in MC were simulated following a change in relative humidity. Differences in absorption spectra with changes in MC of around 1% can be detected. Various applications of the technique are suggested. © 2008 Optical Society of America.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 1
I Osticioli, N F C Mendes, A Nevin, F P S C Gil, M Becucci, E Castellucci (2009)  Analysis of natural and artificial ultramarine blue pigments using laser induced breakdown and pulsed Raman spectroscopy, statistical analysis and light microscopy   Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 73: 3. 525-531  
Abstract: Pulsed laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy were performed using a novel laboratory setup employing the same Nd:YAG laser emission at 532 nm for the analysis of five commercially available pigments collectively known as "ultramarine blue", a sodium silicate material of either mineral origin or an artificially produced glass. LIBS and Raman spectroscopy have provided information regarding the elemental and molecular composition of the samples; additionally, an analytical protocol for the differentiation between natural (lapis lazuli) and artificial ultramarine blue pigments is proposed. In particular LIBS analysis has allowed the discrimination between pigments on the basis of peaks ascribed to calcium. The presence of calcite in the natural blue pigments has been confirmed following Raman spectroscopy in specific areas of the samples, and micro-Raman and optical microscopy have further corroborated the presence of calcite inclusions in the samples of natural origin. Finally multivariate analysis of Laser induced breakdown spectra using principal component analysis (PCA) further enhanced the differentiation between natural and artificial ultramarine blue pigments. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 18
A Nevin, J -P Echard, M Thoury, D Comelli, G Valentini, R Cubeddu (2009)  Excitation emission and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of selected varnishes used in historical musical instruments   Talanta 80: 1. 286-293  
Abstract: The analysis of various varnishes from different origins, which are commonly found on historical musical instruments was carried out for the first time with both fluorescence excitation emission spectroscopy and laser-induced time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Samples studied include varnishes prepared using shellac, and selected diterpenoid and triterpenoid resins from plants, and mixtures of these materials. Fluorescence excitation emission spectra have been collected from films of naturally aged varnishes. In parallel, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of varnishes provides means for discriminating between short- (less than 2.0 ns) and long-lived (greater than 7.5 ns) fluorescence emissions in each of these complex materials. Results suggest that complementary use of the two non destructive techniques allows a better understanding of the main fluorophores responsible for the emission in shellac, and further provides means for distinguishing the main classes of other varnishes based on differences in fluorescence lifetime behaviour. Spectrofluorimetric data and time resolved spectra presented here may form the basis for the interpretation of results from future in situ fluorescence examination and time resolved fluorescence imaging of varnished musical instruments. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 9
A Nevin, D Comelli, I Osticioli, L Toniolo, G Valentini, R Cubeddu (2009)  Assessment of the ageing of triterpenoid paint varnishes using fluorescence, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy   Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 395: 7. 2139-2149  
Abstract: The assessment of the influence of natural and artificial ageing on the spectrofluorescence of triterpenoid varnishes dammar and mastic is the focus of this work. Both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy using attenuated total reflectance and Raman spectroscopy have been employed for complementary molecular analysis of samples. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, excitation emission spectroscopy, and statistical analysis of data have been used to monitor changes in the optical properties of varnish samples. Assessment of naturally and artificially aged samples using excitation emission spectroscopy suggests that extensive exposure to visible light does not lead to easily appreciable differences in the fluorescence of mastic and dammar; cluster analysis has been used to assess changes, which occur with artificial ageing under visible light, indicating that differences in the fluorescence spectra of aged triterpenoids may be insufficient for their discrimination. The results highlight significant differences between the initial fluorescence of films of dammar and mastic and the fluorescence, which develops with ageing and oxidation, and specific markers, which change with ageing in FTIR and Raman spectra, have been identified. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 3
I Osticioli, N F C Mendes, A Nevin, A Zoppi, C Lofrumento, M Becucci, E M Castellucci (2009)  A new compact instrument for Raman, laser-induced breakdown, and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of works of art and their constituent materials   Review of Scientific Instruments 80: 7.  
Abstract: A small, potentially transportable prototype instrument capable of carrying out Raman, laser-induced breakdown (LIB), and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy using a single pulsed laser source was developed for the analysis of cultural heritage objects. The purpose of this instrumentation is to perform fast and reliable analysis of surfaces with minimum damage to an object. For this purpose, a compact (51Ã203Ã76 mm) nanosecond Q -switched neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser (8 ns, 20 Hz, 0.01-115 mJ/pulse) was used as an irradiation source. The use of a nanosecond-gated detector sensitive between 180 and 900 nm allows the acquisition of elemental emissions in LIB spectroscopy and can also be employed for both LIF and time-resolved Raman spectroscopy. In this work, attention is focused on the description of the instrument and its optical components, and two examples of applications for the analysis of pigments and binding media used in works of art are presented. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 4
A Nevin, J L Melia, I Osticioli, G Gautier, M P Colombini (2008)  The identification of copper oxalates in a 16th century Cypriot exterior wall painting using micro FTIR, micro Raman spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry   Journal of Cultural Heritage 9: 2. 154-161  
Abstract: Analysis of paint samples from a 16th C. wall painting in the church of Agios Sozomenos in Galata, Cyprus resulted in the identification of a copper-based, pigment degradation product - a hydrated copper oxalate, analogous to the naturally occurring blue-green mineral Moolooite. The identification of copper oxalate, a deterioration (alteration) product more often associated with the deterioration of bronze was possible through the integrated use of both micro-FTIR in reflectance for spot analysis of areas on the surface of an embedded cross-section, and FTIR reflectance imaging for the localisation of the presence of copper and calcium oxalates within the stratigraphy of the painting. Further, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed for the analysis of unembedded fragments of the painting, confirming the presence of both copper oxalate and calcium oxalate. Finally, novel methods for the removal of salt interferences were employed for analysis using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), which revealed the presence of both oxalate and phosphate ions and, following multivariate analysis of the amino acid profile, identified casein as the binder of the paintings. The imaging of calcium oxalates within the stratigraphy of wall painting samples is important and significant not only for the study of copper-based pigments in general, but especially for the analysis of pigments used for painting on exterior surfaces. © 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 13
I Osticioli, A Nevin, D Anglos, A Burnstock, S Cather, M Becucci, C Fotakis, E Castellucci (2008)  Micro-Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy for the assessment of the effects of the exposure to light on films of egg white and egg yolk   Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 39: 2. 307-313  
Abstract: In this work, non-destructive techniques were employed for the spectrofluorimetric and micro-Raman differentiation of solid films of egg yolk and egg white as a function of exposure to light. Using both techniques it is possible to discriminate between the samples on the basis of composition and follow some chemical changes involved during the light-ageing of egg proteins and fatty acid esters. In egg white, fluorescence emission spectra highlighted the presence of multiple fluorophores, with an effective broadening of the fluorescence emissions following light exposure, ascribed to the partial oxidation and depletion of tryptophan; in the Raman spectrum of dark-aged egg white a peak at 758 cm -1 is ascribed to the vibrational mode of tryptophan, which is completely absent in the spectrum of samples exposed to light. Changes in the fluorescence of egg yolk following exposure to light are ascribed to the degradation of amino acids, cross-linking between amino acids and the formation of oxygenated triacylglycerides. These results are corroborated with Raman spectra of the light-exposed samples, which are associated with wavenumber shifts with respect to the dark-aged sample for the Amide I and for the characteristic carbonyl vibration at 1744 cm -1 ascribed to the oxidation of fatty acid esters. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 9
J -M Manceau, A Nevin, C Fotakis, S Tzortzakis (2008)  Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials   Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics 90: 3-4. 365-368  
Abstract: A powerful broadband femtosecond laser-driven terahertz source was built and used to analyze cultural heritage and art-related materials in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high signal-to-noise ratio available in our system revealed details in the absorption spectra which are inaccessible with traditional FTIR spectrometers. Clear spectral signatures were recorded from organic binding media thus demonstrating the potential of the approach for applications in the monitoring and analysis of cultural heritage materials. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 23
A Nevin, S Cather, A Burnstock, D Anglos (2008)  Analysis of protein-based media commonly found in paintings using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistical analysis   Applied Spectroscopy 62: 5. 481-489  
Abstract: The spectrofluorimetric analysis of protein-based binding media, which are commonly found as painting materials, is based on the detection of emissions from amino acids, as well as fluorescent degradation products that develop with aging. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence excitation emission spectroscopy, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy have all been employed in efforts to discriminate between commonly found proteinaceous binding media, including egg white, egg yolk, milk, and casein, as well as collagen-based glues from rabbit skin, ox bone, parchment, and fish. However, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS), a rapid means of recording fluorescence properties of samples, has not been reported for the differentiation between binding media. This work focuses on the analysis of a large set of naturally aged films of different protein-based binding media using SFS with a range of different offsets between excitation and emission monochromators between 30-60 nm. An interpretation of synchronous fluorescence spectra of binding media is presented and is followed by an assessment and classification of a database of recorded spectra using multivariate analysis. Importantly, following SFS analysis of films of binding media, principal component analysis is used to differentiate among all the proteinaceous media considered on the basis of clustering of data. This application is thus a novel and nondestructive means for differentiation between protein-based binding media. © 2008 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 5
A Nevin, D Anglos, S Cather, A Burnstock (2008)  The influence of visible light and inorganic pigments on fluorescence excitation emission spectra of egg-, casein- and collagen-based painting media   Applied Physics A: Materials Science and Processing 92: 1. 69-76  
Abstract: Spectrofluorimetric analysis of proteinaceous binding media is particularly promising because proteins employed in paintings are often fluorescent and media from different sources have significantly different fluorescence spectral profiles. Protein-based binding media derived from eggs, milk and animal tissue have been used for painting and for conservation, but their analysis using non-destructive techniques is complicated by interferences with pigments, their degradation and their low concentration. Changes in the fluorescence excitation emission spectra of films of binding media following artificial ageing to an equivalent of 50 and 100 years of museum lighting include the reduction of bands ascribed to tyrosine, tryptophan and Maillard reaction products and an increase in fluorescent photodegradation. Fluorescence of naturally aged paint is dependent on the nature of the pigment present and, with egg-based media, in comparison with un-pigmented films, emissions ascribed to amino acids are more pronounced. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 10
V Tornari, E Bernikola, A Nevin, E Kouloumpi, M Doulgeridis, C Fotakis (2008)  Fully-non-contact masking-based holography inspection on dimensionally responsive artwork materials   Sensors 8: 12. 8401-8422  
Abstract: Environmental control in galleries and museums is a necessity and is informed by the knowledge of ongoing processes of deterioration which can threaten the integrity and stability of artworks. Invisible dimensional changes in many works of art occur following environmental fluctuations as materials respond to the changes in humidity and temperature. The constant influence of dimensional changes usually remains invisible until displacement generates visible deterioration and irreversible damage. This paper exploits fully non contact coherent interferometry in a sequential masking procedure for visualising and studying surface deformation which is the direct effect of dimensional alterations induced by humidity changes. Surface deformation during dimensional displacements of constituent materials may occur on any artwork within an unstable environment. In this context, the presented research study explores the diagnostic potential of fully non contact sensors for the direct structural assessment of environmental effects as they occur in real time on works of art. The method is employed to characterise material responses, complementing and improving understanding of material behaviour in unstable environments.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 2
D Comelli, G Valentini, A Nevin, A Farina, L Toniolo, R Cubeddu (2008)  A portable UV-fluorescence multispectral imaging system for the analysis of painted surfaces   Review of Scientific Instruments 79: 8.  
Abstract: A portable fluorescence multispectral imaging system was developed and has been used for the analysis of artistic surfaces. The imaging apparatus exploits two UV lamps for fluorescence excitation and a liquid crystal tunable filter coupled to a low-noise charge coupled device as the image detector. The main features of the system are critically presented, outlining the assets, drawbacks, and practical considerations of portability. A multivariate statistical treatment of spectral data is further considered. Finally, the in situ analysis with the new apparatus of recently restored Renaissance wall paintings is presented. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 9
C Martin De Fonjaudran, A Nevin, F Piqué, S Cather (2008)  Stratigraphic analysis of organic materials in wall painting samples using micro-FTIR attenuated total reflectance and a novel sample preparation technique   Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 392: 1-2. 77-86  
Abstract: Wall paintings typically contain low concentrations of organic materials within a largely inorganic matrix and are characterised by their high porosity and long-term exposure to severe environmental conditions. The identification of organic materials within specific paint or plaster layers is challenging and the inherent characteristics of wall painting samples present further complications. Embedding materials (such as epoxy, polyester and acrylic-based resins) used to produce cross-sections often infiltrate porous and leanly bound samples, and compromise the interpretation of Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectra and the qualitative identification of natural organic materials. An alternative method for the preparation of cross-sections of wall painting samples was developed using cyclododecane (C 12H 24) as a temporary consolidant and barrier coating to encapsulate the sample, and to provide necessary support to produce a cross-section through microtoming. Impacts of traditional and novel sample preparation techniques on the identification of organic materials with micro-FTIR-ATR were examined for both replica and real wall painting samples. © Springer-Verlag 2008.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 4
A Nevin, I Osticioli, D Anglos, A Burnstock, S Cather, E Castellucci (2008)  The analysis of naturally and artificially aged protein-based paint media using Raman spectroscopy combined with Principal Component Analysis   Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 39: 8 SPEC. ISS.. 993-1000  
Abstract: The analysis of protein-based paint media used in paintings is presented using micro-Raman spectroscopy, carried out with a diode laser emitting at a wavelength of 785 nm. Following a contextualisation of the analysis and ageing of protein-based binding media, a consideration of the effects of artificial ageing using visible light on the Raman spectra of binding media is given and the interpretation of changes to the Raman spectra of selected binding media is presented. Bands associated with aromatic amino acids are most affected by ageing, but spectra retain diagnostic information for the identification of proteins. Specific changes to the spectra of dairy and collagen-based binding media are described and explained with reference to the oxidation of amino acids. A multivariate approach using Principal Component Analysis has been chosen for the assessment of the bands in C-H stretching region for which a large set of over 150 spectra were recorded from artificially and naturally aged binding media which included egg white, egg yolk, milk and casein, and collagen-based glues from rabbit skin, ox bone, parchment and sturgeon bladder. Raman spectroscopy has been used for an assessment of the effects of ageing and the detection of degradation due to exposure of light. Multivariate analysis has allowed the differentiation between a large data set of spectra of naturally and artificially aged binding media. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 16
A Nevin, P Pouli, S Georgiou, C Fotakis (2007)  Laser conservation of art   Nature Materials 6: 5. 320-322  
Abstract: The use of laser beams for cleaning and restoration of the works of art can prove to be effective, with a proper knowledge and understanding of the materials science and a framework for treatment. The modern characterization, analysis, and conservation of artworks therefore requires a concerted multidisciplinary approach. Models demonstrate that the efficiency of ablation strongly depends on the polymer molecular weight, and ablation is usually easier for molecules of lower molecular weight, depending on the laser irradiation parameters. Molecular weight dose not generally affect the reactivity of radicals within the bulk material, aside from the limited influence on radical diffusion. Multiphoton polymerization using fematosecond pulses has been used to create structures with details of sizes below the diffraction limit and for fabrication complex 3D-structures on the 100 nm scale, and this technique has proved to be effective for the cleaning of polymeric coatings on painting.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 12
A Nevin, I Osticioli, D Anglos, A Burnstock, S Cather, E Castellucci (2007)  Raman spectra of proteinaceous materials used in paintings : A multivariate analytical approach for classification and identification   Analytical Chemistry 79: 16. 6143-6151  
Abstract: This work presents Raman spectra obtained from thin films of protein materials which are commonly used as binding media in painted works of art. Spectra were recorded over the spectral range of 3250-250 cm -1, using an excitation wavelength of 785 nm, and several bands have been identified in the fingerprint region that correspond to the various proteins examined. Differences in the C-H vibrations located between 3200 and 2700 cm -1 can be accounted for with reference to the amino acid composition of the protein-based binding media as well as the presence of fatty acid esters, in the case of egg yolk. In addition, the discrimination of different proteins on the basis of variations in spectra between 3200 and 2700 cm -1 can be achieved following multivariate analysis of a large data set of spectra, providing a novel and nondestructive alternative based on Raman spectroscopy to other methods commonly used for the analysis of proteins. © 2007 American Chemical Society.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 33
A Nevin, D Comelli, G Valentini, D Anglos, A Burnstock, S Cather, R Cubeddu (2007)  Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of proteinaceous binders used in paintings   Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 388: 8. 1897-1905  
Abstract: The differentiation of proteins commonly found as binding media in paintings is presented based on spectrally resolved and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and total emission spectroscopy. Proteins from eggs and animal glue were analysed with pulsed laser excitation at 248 nm (KrF excimer) and 355 nm (third harmonic of Nd:YAG) for spectrally resolved measurements, and at 337 nm (N2) and 405 nm (N2 pumped dye laser) for spectrally resolved lifetime measurements and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). Total emission spectra of binding media are used for the interpretation of LIF spectra. Time-resolved techniques become decisive with excitation at longer wavelengths as fluorescence lifetime permits the discrimination amongst binding media, despite minimal spectral differences; spectrally resolved measurements of fluorescence lifetime have maximum differences between the binding media examined using excitation at 337 nm, with maximum observed fluorescence at 410 nm. FLIM, which measures the average lifetime of the emissions detected, can also differentiate between media, is non-invasive and is potentially advantageous for the analysis of paintings. © 2007 Springer-Verlag.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 20
D Comelli, G Valentini, R Cubeddu, L Toniolo (2005)  Fluorescence lifetime imaging and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of Michelangelo's David   Applied Spectroscopy 59: 9. 1174-1181  
Abstract: We developed a combined procedure for the analysis of works of art based on a portable system for fluorescence imaging integrated with analytical measurements on microsamples. The method allows us to localize and identify organic and inorganic compounds present on the surface of artworks. The fluorescence apparatus measures the temporal and spectral features of the fluorescence emission, excited by ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses. The kinetic of the emission is studied through a fluorescence lifetime imaging system, while an optical multichannel analyzer measures the fluorescence spectra of selected points. The chemical characterization of the compounds present on the artistic surfaces is then performed by means of analytical measurements on microsamples collected with the assistance of the fluorescence maps. The previous concepts have been successfully applied to study the contaminants on the surface of Michelangelo's David. The fluorescence analysis combined with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements revealed the presence of beeswax, which permeates most of the statue surface, and calcium oxalate deposits mainly arranged in vertical patterns and related to rain washing. © 2005 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.
Notes: Cited By (since 1996): 19

Conference papers



F Toja, D Saviello, A Nevin, D Comelli, M Lazzari, M Levi, L Toniolo (2012)  The degradation of poly(vinyl acetate) as a material for design objects : A multi-analytical study of the effect of dibutyl phthalate plasticizer. Part 1  
Abstract: The influence of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizer on poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) degradation was investigated. A multi-analytical approach (combining FTIR and Fluorescence spectroscopy, NMR and DSC analyses) was used to study how thermal- and photo-oxidative ageing treatments act on the polymer and assess the role of the additive in the degradation pattern. Standard and plasticized PVAc films were artificially aged at 60 °C in a thermal regime and irradiated at wavelengths above 290 nm in a photo-oxidative ageing regime, with exposure between 100 and 2000 h. The two types of ageing differ mainly in the formation of C{double bond, long}C double bonds along the polymer backbone, enhanced by thermal ageing, and the formation of aldehydic structures, following photo-oxidative treatment and in the degree to which plasticizer is lost. The integration of results from different analytical methods highlights the utility in combining complementary analyses for the study of PVAc degradation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Notes: Export Date: 30 November 2012
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