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Brock M Tice

Journal articles

F Vadakkumpadan, L J Rantner, B Tice, P Boyle, A J Prassl, E Vigmond, G Plank, N Trayanova (2009)  Image-based models of cardiac structure with applications in arrhythmia and defibrillation studies   J Electrocardiol 42: 2. 1-10 Mar  
Abstract: The objective of this article is to present a set of methods for constructing realistic computational models of cardiac structure from high-resolution structural and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images and to demonstrate the applicability of the models in simulation studies. The structural image is segmented to identify various regions such as normal myocardium, ventricles, and infarct. A finite element mesh is generated from the processed structural data, and fiber orientations are assigned to the elements. The Purkinje system, when visible, is modeled using linear elements that interconnect a set of manually identified points. The methods were applied to construct 2 different models; and 2 simulation studies, which demonstrate the applicability of the models in the analysis of arrhythmia and defibrillation, were performed. The models represent cardiac structure with unprecedented detail for simulation studies.
Brock M Tice, Blanca Rodríguez, James Eason, Natalia Trayanova (2007)  Mechanistic investigation into the arrhythmogenic role of transmural heterogeneities in regional ischaemia phase 1A.   Europace 9 Suppl 6: vi46-vi58 Nov  
Abstract: AIMS: Studies of arrhythmogenesis during ischemia have focused primarily on reentrant mechanisms manifested on the epicardial surface. The goal of this study was to use a physiologically-accurate model of acute regional ischemia phase 1A to determine the contribution of ischaemia-induced transmural electrophysiological heterogeneities to arrhythmogenesis following left anterior descending artery occlusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: A slice through a geometrical model of the rabbit ventricles was extracted and a model of regional ischaemia developed. The model included a central ischaemic zone incorporating transmural gradients of I(K(ATP)) activation and [K+]o, surrounded by ischaemic border zones (BZs), with the degree of ischaemic effects varied to represent progression of ischaemia 2-10 min post-occlusion. Premature stimulation was applied over a range of coupling intervals to induce re-entry. The presence of ischaemic BZs and a transmural gradient in I(K(ATP)) activation provided the substrate for re-entrant arrhythmias. Increased dispersion of refractoriness and conduction velocity in the BZs with time post-occlusion led to a progressive increase in arrhythmogenesis. In the absence of a transmural gradient of I(K(ATP)) activation, re-entry was rarely sustained. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the mechanism by which specific electrophysiological heterogeneities underlie arrhythmogenesis during acute ischaemia could be useful in developing preventative treatments for patients at risk of coronary vascular disease.
Blanca Rodríguez, Brock M Tice, James C Eason, Felipe Aguel, José M Ferrero, Natalia Trayanova (2004)  Effect of acute global ischemia on the upper limit of vulnerability: a simulation study.   Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 286: 6. H2078-H2088 Jun  
Abstract: The goal of this modeling research is to provide mechanistic insight into the effect of altered membrane kinetics associated with 5-12 min of acute global ischemia on the upper limit of cardiac vulnerability (ULV) to electric shocks. We simulate electrical activity in a finite-element bidomain model of a 4-mm-thick slice through the canine ventricles that incorporates realistic geometry and fiber architecture. Global acute ischemia is represented by changes in membrane dynamics due to hyperkalemia, acidosis, and hypoxia. Two stages of acute ischemia are simulated corresponding to 5-7 min (stage 1) and 10-12 min (stage 2) after the onset of ischemia. Monophasic shocks are delivered in normoxia and ischemia over a range of coupling intervals, and their outcomes are examined to determine the highest shock strength that resulted in induction of reentrant arrhythmia. Our results demonstrate that acute ischemia stage 1 results in ULV reduction to 0.8A from its normoxic value of 1.4A. In contrast, no arrhythmia is induced regardless of shock strength in acute ischemia stage 2. An investigation of mechanisms underlying this behavior revealed that decreased postshock refractoriness resulting mainly from 1) ischemic electrophysiological substrate and 2) decrease in the extent of areas positively-polarized by the shock is responsible for the change in ULV during stage 1. In contrast, conduction failure is the main cause for the lack of vulnerability in acute ischemia stage 2. The insight provided by this study furthers our understanding of mechanisms by which acute ischemia-induced changes at the ionic level modulate cardiac vulnerability to electric shocks.
Blanca Rodríguez, Brock M Tice, James C Eason, Felipe Aguel, Natalia Trayanova (2004)  Cardiac vulnerability to electric shocks during phase 1A of acute global ischemia.   Heart Rhythm 1: 6. 695-703 Dec  
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to characterize the changes in vulnerability to electric shocks during phase 1A of global ischemia in the rabbit ventricles and to determine the mechanisms responsible for these changes. BACKGROUND: Mechanisms responsible for the changes in cardiac vulnerability over the course of ischemia phase 1A remain poorly understood. The lack of understanding results from the rapid ischemic change in cardiac electrophysiologic properties, which renders experimental evaluation of vulnerability difficult. METHODS: To examine dynamic changes in vulnerability to electric shocks over the course of acute global ischemia phase 1A, this study used a three-dimensional anatomically accurate bidomain model of ischemic rabbit ventricles. Monophasic shocks are applied at various coupling intervals to construct vulnerability grids in normoxia and at various stages of ischemia phase 1A. RESULTS: Our simulations demonstrate that 2 to 3 minutes after the onset of ischemia, the upper limit of vulnerability remains at its normoxic value (12.75 V/cm); however, arrhythmias are induced at shorter coupling intervals. As ischemia progresses, the upper limit of vulnerability decreases, reaching 6.4 V/cm in the advanced stage of ischemia phase 1A, and the vulnerable window shifts towards longer coupling intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the upper limit of vulnerability result from an increase in the spatial extent of the shock-end excitation wavefronts and the slower recovery from shock-induced positive polarization. Shifts in the vulnerable window stem from decreases in local repolarization times and the occurrence of postshock conduction failure caused by prolonged postrepolarization refractoriness.

Conference papers

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