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Carlo Magno

De La Salle University, 
2401 Taft Ave. Manila, Philippines
crlmgn@yahoo.com
Dr. Carlo Magno is presently a faculty of the Counseling and Educational Psychology Department at De La Salle University-Manila where he teach courses on measurement and evaluation, educational research, psychometric theory, and statistics. Some of his work on teacher performance, learner-centeredness, measurement and evaluation, self-regulation, metacognition, parenting, and language learning were published in local and international refereed journals and presented in local and international conferences.

Books

2010
2009

Journal articles

2011
Carlo Magno (2011)  Assessing the Relationship of Scientific Thinking, Self-regulation in Research, and Creativity in a Measurement Model   The International Journal of Research and Review 6: 1. 17-47 March  
Abstract: The present study investigated the relationship of the constructs scientific thinking, selfregulation in research, and creativity in a measurement model. The social cognitive theory and field theory explained that when individuals encounter of a problem, they regulate their actions, they also think scientifically and use strategies to generate creative solutions. The scales were administered to 1000 undergraduate and 839 graduate students who are currently having their thesis/dissertation across universities in Luzon (Philippines). The initial results showed a four-factor structure of scientific thinking composed of practical inclination, analytical interest, intellectual independence, and discourse assertiveness. On the other hand, the eight factors of self-regulation contextualized in research were confirmed. The measurement model structured scientific thinking, self-regulation in research, and creativity with their subscales as the manifest variable. The model showed significant relationships and path estimates for each manifest variable. The two other models were tested for the undergraduate and graduate students showed model invariance.
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Carlo Magno, Arceli Amarles (2011)  Teachers’ Feedback Practices in Second Language Academic Writing Classrooms   The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment 6: 2. 21-30 January  
Abstract: This study provides support for the hypothesized factors of feedback practices (feedback on form, content, and writing style) employed by writing teachers in second language academic writing classes. Participants were 380 college students in a university in the Philippines who were enrolled in English academic writing classes. A 30-item questionnaire containing teachers feedback practices were administered among students. Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, the three categories of feedback employed by writing teachers in academic writing classes were supported (ï£2=1409.49, df=402, ï£2/df=3.5, RMR=.05, GFI=.96, CFA=.92, RMSEA=.08). Results further showed convergence of the three factors. The actual measure of feedback attained precision where the TIF curve covers 95% of the distribution. Pedagogical implications on the use and types of feedbacks employed in the language classrooms were discussed in this paper.
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2010
Carlo Magno (2010)  Integrating nursing quality with achievement and aptitude: Towards assessing nursing potential   The International Journal of Research and Review 4: 37-49 March  
Abstract: The study integrated the qualities of nursing students (N=227) with their aptitude and academic achievement in a tripartite model. A battery of tests called in the Assessment for Nursing Potential (ANP) composed of the (a) Nursing Quality Scale (NQS) with factors on caring, compassion, commitment and connectedness; (b) Achievement test; and (c) Aptitude test was used in the study. Using a three-wave longitudinal design, the NQS was first administered followed by the aptitude, then the achievement tests. The effects of the nursing qualities on achievement and aptitude were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The first model indicates that nursing quality as a latent factor has no significant effects on both achievement and aptitude, obtaining a moderate goodness of fit (RMSEA=.09). However, when the same model was tested including the effect of aptitude on achievement, it resulted to a better fit (RMSEA=.06). In the second model, aptitude has a significant effect on achievement, p<.05. The model explains that attitudinal characteristics of nurses are independent of cognitive abilities such as their aptitude and achievement, and thus supports the belief that it is possible to integrate them in assessing nursing potential. Although effective nurses may possess the necessary characteristics such as caring, compassion, commitment, and connectedness, these quality traits do not affect their abilities.
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Carlo Magno (2010)  The Effect of Scaffolding on Children’s Reading Speed, Reading Anxiety, and Reading Proficiency   TESOL Journal 3: 92-98 December  
Abstract: The present experiment assessed the effect of scaffolding as a reading intervention. Scaffolding was done by a teacher providing feedback while the child is orally reading. Feedback was given in terms of the decoding (meaning of words), fluency (which involves correct pronunciation, proper rhythm, and speed), and modeling (pre practice procedure) while the child is orally reading an unfamiliar story. There were 60 first grade pupils who participated in the study. Reading speed and anxiety was measured before and after the scaffolding. Reading speed was measured by the rate of reading by seconds while reading anxiety was assessed by asking the pupils to respond in the Child Reading Anxiety Scale. The results indicate a significant increased the childrenâs reading speed [t(60) = 7.96, p< .05], reading proficiency [t(60)=8.77, p<.05], and significant decrease in the their reading anxiety [t(60) = 15.76, p< .05] from pre to post test. The study provides implications for reading instruction in the form of scaffolding.
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Carlo Magno (2010)  Assessing Academic Self-Regulated Learning among Filipino College Students: The Factor Structure and Item Fit   The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment 5: 1. 61-76 August  
Abstract: The present study constructed a self-report scale that measures academic self-regulated learning. The Academic Self-Regulation Scale (A-SRL) was anchored on the framework of self-regulated learning by Zimmerman and Martinez-Pons (1986; 1988). The present study uncovered the factor structure of the A-SRL-S items and the factor structure was further tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Further psychometric evidence was established for the scale using a Polychotomous Rasch Model (Partial Credit Model) which determined appropriateness of the scale categories and item fit. An initial 111 items were administered to 222 college students in the National Capital Region in the Philippines. Principal components analysis was conducted and extracted seven factors of the A-SRL-S which explains 42.54% of the total variance (55 items had high factor loadings). The six factors were consistent with the original framework and a new factor called learning responsibility emerged. This seven-factor structure was confirmed using a CFA using a sample of 309 college students. Adequate fit of the model was attained (Ï2=332.07, df=1409, RMS=.07, RMSEA=.06, GFI=.91, NFI=.89). The seven factors attained convergent validity as shown by significant intercorrelations of the factor scores. The step functions are increasing monotonically for the scale where there is a high probability of observance of the scale categories. Only 4 out of the 55 items of the A-SRL-S lacked homogeneity with other items. Implications of the seven factors and IRT fit of the items on self-regulation theory was further discussed.
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Carlo Magno (2010)  The Role of Teacher Assessment in a Community Welfare Training Service   The International Journal of Research and Review 5: 91-118 September  
Abstract: The study investigated the structure of the subscales of a teacher performance assessment in a community service course. An instrument was constructed based on a synthesis of widely used teacher assessment measures and teacher assessment models. There are seven subscales identified that are appropriate for assessing teachers teaching the Civic Welfare Training Service Program: (a) organization and planning, (b) student interaction, (c) evaluation, (d) instructional methods, (e) course outcome, (f) learner-centeredness, and (g) communication. The joining tree clustering and multidimensional scaling techniques were conducted to determine further the structure of the factors that occur in the community service program. The results of these clustering techniques showed that the teacher assessment is a multifactor design. Three models were tested through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) using the Structural Equations Modeling (SEM) approach. The results of the CFA indicate that a multidimensional scale with the seven factors have best model fit rather than a multifactor scale composed of sub-latent factors. The model in the CFA showed a rather good fit (RMSEA=.031). The recommendations regarding the use of the instrument are discussed in the paper.
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Carlo Magno (2010)  The predisposition to help of Filipino and Chinese-Filipino firefighters.   The International Journal of Research and Review 5: 2. 30-35  
Abstract: The concept of predisoposition to help was studied using Filipino traits among Filipino and Chinese-Filipino firefighters. A scale was constructed that measures predisposition to help using Filipino psychology models. Five factors were extracted after conducting an exploratory factor analysis: Heroism (pagkabayani), sensitivity (pakikiramdam), relational kinship (makapamilya), reciprocity (utang-na-loob), and social justice (pananagutan). The overall scale obtained a Cronbachâs alpha of .93 and alpha coefficients of .87, .93, .91, 84, and .72, respectively for each factor. Convergent validity was also evidenced where the five factors are all significantly correlated. Discriminant validity was only evident for the factor on heroism (pagkabayani) where significant difference was found for Filipino and Chinese-Filipino firefighters. The final items were calibrated using the Partial Credit Rasch Model. Person and item reliabilities were high (.93 and .97 respectivley) using the IRT approach. There is high probability of observance for the 5-point scale with step functions -3.14, -1.94, -.68, 1.11, and 2.90. Majority of the items were responsive which attained adequate fit (MNSQ within 0.8 to 1.2) to the Partial Credit Model.
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Carlo Magno (2010)  A measure for scientific thinking   The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment 6: 1. 71-86 December  
Abstract: The present study further explains the nature of scientific thinking by exploring and confirming its factors. Scientific thinking is defined as the thought processes that are used in science, including the cognitive processes involved in theory generation, experiment design, hypothesis testing, data interpretation, and scientific discovery (Dunbar, 1997). A scale was constructed where the items reflect the potent characteristics of scientists as identified from previous research. A total of 240 items were initially constructed referring to characteristics of scientific thinking and it was administered to 528 college students taking a science course. The underlying factors of the 240 items were identified using a principal components analysis. Analysis of the scree plot showed that four factors can explain the total variance of 60.94%. The grouping of the items was reviewed and they were identified as practical inclination, analytical interest, intellectual independence, and discourse assertiveness. These new set of factors were administered to a similar sample (N=1839) and the factors were confirmed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The results showed that the four factors of scientific thinking significantly increase with each other. The model also had an adequate fit (RMS Standard Residual=.02, RMSEA=.06, PGI=.95, GFI=.95). These domains can serve as pillars of scientific thinking and the results closed the gap in the process of identifying further characteristics.
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Carlo Magno (2010)  A brief history of educational assessment in the Philippines   Educational Measurement and Evaluation Review 1: 140-149 July  
Abstract: The report presents a primer on the history of educational assessment in the Philippines. The history of educational assessment is described by the different pillars that contributed to its development. These factors include timelines of government mandates, studies done in the national level, universities that shape experts in the field, professional association, and pioneered researches. The history of educational assessment is divided by the early years, contemporary period, and future direction. The early years include the Monroe survey, Research, Evaluation and Guidance Division of the Bureau of Public Schools, Economic Survey Committee, Prosser Survey, and UNESCO survey. The contemporary period is marked by the EDCOM report of 1991, Philippine Education Sector Study, the role of the Fund for Assistance to Private Organization (FAPE) and the creation of the Center for Educational Measurement (CEM) and the Asian Psychological Services and Assessment Corporation (APSA). The article described future directions of educational assessment about the expanding role of educational assessment specialists in school and creating niches for future studies.
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Carlo Magno (2010)  Korean students’ language learning strategies and years of studying English as predictors of proficiency in English   TESOL Journal 2: 39-61  
Abstract: This study predicted the English proficiency of Korean students using the components of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and number of months spent in the formal study of English. There were 302 Korean students, ages 14-18, who were requested to answer the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and an English ability test. The SILL includes strategies on memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, affective, and social strategies. An English Ability Test was used to measure skills on using grammar, increasing vocabulary, detecting grammatical errors, and reading comprehension. The multiple regression was used to analyze whether the SILL subscales and months spent in the formal study of English can significantly predict English proficiency. Only the compensation strategy and months spent in the formal study of English significantly predicted English ability. There was an increase in R (.35) when the months spent in the formal study of English were added with the SILL as predictors of English proficiency.
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Carlo Magno (2010)  Integrating negative affect measures in a measurement model: Assessing the function of negative affect as interference to self-regulation   The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment 4: 48-67 April  
Abstract: The present study investigated the composition of negative affect and its function as inhibitory to thought processes such as self-regulation. Negative affect in the present study were composed of anxiety, worry, thought suppression, and fear of negative evaluation. These four factors were selected based on the criteria of negative affect by Hopko, Hunt, and Armento (2005) and Smith and Kirby (2001). Four different scales were used to measure these factors. The factor structure of the negative affect was tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Results showed that all items as indictors were significant and all the four factors of negative affect were significantly related. The inhibitory function of the negative affect on self-regulation was further tested using Structural Equations Modeling. The results showed that as negative affectâs increase, there was a reduction of 4% variance on self-regulation. The model showing the inhibitory function of negative affect also attained an adequate fit.
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Carlo Magno (2010)  The role of metacogntion in developing critical thinking   Metacognotion and Learning 5: 2. August  
Abstract: The study investigated the influence of metacognition on critical thinking skills. It is hypothesized in the study that critical thinking occurs when individuals use their underlying metacognitive skills and strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome. The Metacognitive Assessment Inventory (MAI) by Schraw and Dennison (1994), which measures regulation of cognition and knowledge of cognition, and the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) with the factors inference, recognition of assumptions, deduction, interpretations, and evaluation of arguments were administered to 240 college students from different universities in the National Capital Region in the Philippines. The Structural Equations Modeling (SEM) was used to determine the effect of metacognition on critical thinking as latent variables. Two models were tested: (1) In the first model, metacognition is composed of two factors while (2) in the second model, metacognition has eight factors as they affect critical thinking. The results indicated that in both models, metacognition has a significant path to critical thinking, p<.05. The analysis also showed that for both metacognition and critical thinking, all underlying factors are significant. The second model had a better goodness of fit as compared with the first as shown by the RMSEA value and other fit indices.
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Carlo Magno, Josefina Sembrano (2010)  Integrating Learner-Centeredness and Teacher Performance in a Framework   International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 21: 3. May  
Abstract: The study investigated whether learner-centeredness is reflected in teacher performance assessment as applied in a higher education sample. A measure of teachersâ performance anchored on Danielsonâs Components of Professional Practice was constructed in three parallel forms. A measure of learner-centeredness with four factors (developing positive interpersonal characteristics, encouraging personal challenge, adopting class learning needs, and facilitating the learning process) was also used. These two instruments were administered to 2032 college students in 85 classes. Different sets of measurement models were constructed where all factors of the teacher assessment and learner-centered scale are intercorrelated in a measurement model. The measurement models were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The results show that learner-centeredness is reflected in the three forms of the teacher assessment as indicated by their significant paths, p<.05. The four-factor model, where learner-centered is related to each form of the teacher assessment had the best fit (GFI=.94, TLI=.98, RMSEA=.06). Adequate fit was also established when learner-centeredness is related to separate domains of teacher assessment (GFI=.97, TLI=.99, RMSEA=.04). Results indicated that high performance in the constructed teacher assessment is indicative of learner-centered practices. Theoretical implications of the measurement models about assessment and the teaching-learning paradigm were also discussed.
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Carlo Magno (2010)  The Functions of Grading Students   The Assessment handbook 3: 50-58 July  
Abstract: Grading is the one of the major function, result, and outcome of assessing and evaluating studentsâ learning in the educational setting. This short report provides three basic information about grading students: Its definition, purpose, and rationale. The definition of grades presents the concept of grading that is acceptable in literature as well as its process. The purpose of grading is discussed in terms of feedback administrative purposes, discovering exceptionalities and motivation. The rational of grades are further explained through absolute and fixed standards, norms, individual growth, and achievement relative ability and effort.
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Carlo Magno (2010)  Predicting Grades in Mathematics and English through Study Habits   The International Journal of Research and Review 5: 40-51 September  
Abstract: The presents study investigated study habits (delay avoidance, work methods, teacher approval, and education acceptance) as predictors of grades in mathematics and English in a path model. There were several assumptions in past reviews accounting on how study habits directly explain grades in the presence of other factors but the present study isolated the effect of four study habits. There were 259 Filipino high school students who were requested to answer the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (SSHA) and their grades in mathematics and English for the first quarter were also asked. The four factors of study habits were first tested using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and the four-factor structure was proven having adequate fit ( Ï2=47432.81, df=8745, RMS Standardized Residual=.01, RMSEA=.01, NFI=.94, GFI=.95, PGI=.97). Path analysis was used to test the prediction of the four study habits to grade in mathematics and English and the model also had an adequate fit ( Ï2=366.48, IFI=.98, NFI=.98, CFI=.98, and RMSEA=.09). The path analysis revealed that work methods significantly predicted both grades in mathematics in science. Work method was the only predictor for mathematics and only teacher approval did not significantly predict grades in English. Further implications of the findings are discussed.
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Carlo Magno, Jennifer Ann Lajom (2010)  Writing your winning thesis   The International Journal of Research and Review 4: 28-36 March  
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to provide readers such as students with techniques in writing a clear and accurate undergraduate thesis proposal. Students commonly encounter a variety of problems in starting to write their thesis from conceptualization of their research questions, to selecting group mates, and ultimately starting to write the manuscript. To deal with these problems, students need effective preparations both psychological and technical for writing the thesis manuscript. Preparing oneself psychologically to write a thesis is an important consideration for students. This psychological preparation involves the use of effective cognitive strategies such as self-regulation. On the other hand, the preparedness in the technical writing of oneâs thesis is emphasized in this workshop. Clarifications on how to arrive with research questions and the purpose of the literature review is presented. The functions in arriving with quality literature review are explained as a key in writing effectively other parts of the thesis proposal.
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Carlo Magno (2010)  Looking at Filipino Pre-service Teachers’ Value for Education through Epistemological Beliefs about Learning and Asian Values   The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher 19: 1. 61-78 March  
Abstract: The present study investigated the contribution of epistemological beliefs about learning and Asian values on pre-service teachersâ value for education. The relationship of epistemological beliefs and valuing education is based on Schwartz and Bilskyâs (1987; 1990) theory of human values. The participants were 362 pre-service teachers from different universities in Manila, Philippines. It was found in a standard regression analysis that both complexity and structured belief about learning significantly predicted valuing oneâs education. Higher expectation for achievement, filial piety, and emotional restraint were also significant. A hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the order of contribution of Asian values (filial piety, hierarchical family structure, collectivism, emotional restraint, perseverance and hard work, higher expectation for achievement, respect for authority, and respect for education) on valuing education. The results showed that the order of Asian values based on the theory of Schwartz and Bardi (2001) significantly explained the variation on valuing education (Adjusted R2=.35). The contribution of each Asian value increased the variation on valuing education but it remained stable with the inclusion of respect for education and respect for authority.
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2009
Carlo Magno (2009)  Investigating the Effect of School Ability on Self-efficacy, Learning Approaches, and Metacognition   The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher 18: 2. 233-244 December  
Abstract: The relations among school ability, self-efficacy, learning approach, and metacognition were examined in a path model. Questionnaires measuring these constructs were administered to 194 Filipino college students. Path analysis was used to determine the effects of school ability on self-efficacy and learning approaches, and in turn, the effects of self-efficacy and learning approach on metacognition. The path model tested showed adequate goodness of fit (ï£2/df=2.77, GFI=.98, AGFI=.92, RMSEA=.05). In previous studies, deep approach but not surface approach to learning facilitates performance as outcome variable. However, a different pattern emerged in the results of the present study. When school ability was used as a predictor, surface approach increased and deep approach decreased as outcomes. When they were used as predictors together with self-efficacy, both increased the use of metacognition. Surface approach among Asians is seen as a useful approach to learning that is facilitated by prior school ability, and results to awareness of oneâs learning. Further implications on surface and deep approach to learning are discussed.
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Carlo Magno (2009)  Explaining the Creative Mind   The International Journal of Research and Review 3: 10-19 September  
Abstract: Creativity is explained in the different perspectives of psychology as a mental and social process. The different dimensions of creativity from available theories were based on influences, description of the task, ability, and characteristics of individuals who experience it. In the present article, creativity is explained in five major themes: (1) attributes of creativity, (2) forms and outlets, (3) factors that stimulate it, (4) situations where it is facilitated, and (5) situations that hinder it. There is a connection between how one conceptualizes creativity and the process involved in stimulating and facilitating it. The connection is explained in some common clusters that come out for each major theme. Creativity is generally explained to have multiple attributes. Creativity is stimulated and facilitated based on oneâs belief. The self and social factors can hinder creativity.
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Carlo Magno (2009)  Self-Regulation and Approaches to Learning in English Composition Writing   TESOL Journal 1: December  
Abstract: It is hypothesized in the present study that when learners are tasked to write a composition in a second language (such as English language for Filipinos), they use specific approaches to learning and eventually undergo self-regulatory processes. The present study tested a model showing the shift from process to outcome in writing (Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 1999) by assessing the path from approaches to learning to self-regulation (using path analysis) as used in composition writing in English. The Academic Self-Regulated Learning Scale (A-SRL-S) and the Revised-Learning Process Questionnaire (R-LPQ-2F) were administered to 294 college students major in English, communication arts, literature, mass communications, and journalism from different universities in Manila, Philippines. The results showed that: (1) Deep approach significantly correlated with the factors of self-regulation except for environmental structuring and seeking assistance while surface approach did not, (2) deep approach and surface approach was also significantly correlated, and (3) deep approach significantly increased the variance in all self-regulation components while surface approach only increased the variance in memory strategy. Further theoretical implications of the path model were explained.
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Carlo Magno (2009)  A Metaevaluation Study on the Assessment of Teacher Performance in an Assessment Center in the Philippines   The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment 3: 75-93 December  
Abstract: The present study conducted a metaevaluation of a teacher performance system used in the Performance Assessment Services Unit (PASU) of De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde in Manila Philippines. To determine whether the evaluation system on teacher performance adheres to quality evaluation, the standards of feasibility, utility, propriety, and accuracy are used as standards. The system of teacher performance evaluation in PASU includes the use of students rating called the Student Instructional Report (SIR) and a rating scale used by peers called the Peer Evaluation Form (PEF). A series of guided discussions was conducted among the different stakeholders of the evaluation system in the college such as the deans and program chairs, teaching faculty, and students to determine their appraisal of the evaluation system in terms of the four standards. A metaevaluation checklist was also used by experts in measurement and evaluation in the Center for Learning and Performance Assessment (CLPA). The results of the guided discussion showed that most of the stakeholders were satisfied with the conduct of teacher performance assessment. Although in using the standards by the Joint Committee on evaluation, the results are very low. The ratings of utility, propriety, and feasibility were fair and the standard on accuracy is poor. The areas for improvement are discussed in the paper.
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Carlo Magno (2009)  Taxonomy of Aptitude Test Items: A Guide for Item Writers   The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment 2: 39-53 August  
Abstract: A taxonomy of aptitude test items is organized based on widely used aptitude tests. The taxonomy is based on three-stage Delphi technique from experts in measurement and test development practitioners. The issues on the need to arrive with a taxonomy of aptitude test items are discussed. The classifications of these items are described and examples of items are provided. The taxonomy created showed that the nature of variables measured for each type varies. Through the taxonomy, item writers can be guided on what items to write given the nature of the construct that needs to be measured. The utility value of the taxonomy is discussed.
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Carlo Magno (2009)  Assessing Grade School Students Metacognition in Solving Mathematical Problem   The Assessment Handbook 2: 1-22 December  
Abstract: This study constructed a measure of metacognition that is applicable for grade school students (fourth grade). The constructed measure is domain-specific contextualized in the metacognition of mathematical problem solving. There is a need to construct a more direct and domain-specific measure of metacognition specifically for grade school pupils because of the difficulty in assessment procedures for young children. The test is composed of eight items that measure declarative knowledge, conditional knowledge, procedural knowledge, prediction, planning, evaluation, and two items on monitoring. The test was administered to 280 grade four students in different public and private schools in the Philippines. The reliability of the test using Cronbachâs Alpha is .78, indicating acceptable internal consistency of the items. Parallel form of reliability was conducted where it was significantly correlated with another measure of metacognitive skills (r=.21, p<.05). Intercorrelation of the factors showed that planning is negatively correlated with the other components. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed that all components of the measure are significant to metacognition as a latent construct. Adequate goodness of fit indicated that the measure is appropriate for grade four pupils given the eight items. Further implications of the findings on a cognitive development perspective and underlying metacognitive processes are discussed.
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Carlo Magno (2009)  How I Learned to Speak English?: Factors Involved in ESL Acquisition among Filipinos   Philippine ESL Journal 3: 127-144 July  
Abstract: This study is part of the larger project which aims at identifying the linguistic features found in the diagnostic essays of freshmen college students from five private schools in Metro Manila, Philippines, in their first week of classes. The intention is to find out what structures students have acquired in their developing linguistic competence prior to their English Communication One instruction in college in order to identify their needs. This report focuses on the analysis of sentence-level errors and suggests ways for pedagogical enhancement. Findings show that the most frequently occuring errors are related to punctuation usage (comma), vocabulary (word form and word choice), verb usage, prepositions, run-on and fragments, noun endings (plural/singular and articles), and even as basic as capitalization usage. All errors equally occur in all proficiency levels except word choice, capitalization, and missing or unnecessary comma, which have the lowest occurrence in level three proficiency. The findings will prove beneficial for curricular enhancement.
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Carlo Magno (2009)  Developing and Assessing Self-regulated Learners   The Assessment Handbook 1: 26-42 May  
Abstract: The report focuses on aspects in the development and assessment of self-regulated learning in the school context. The nature of self-regulated learning was discussed by identifying its critical characteristics. Different models showing the components and process of self-regulation was presented in order to focus different ways of assessing it as a construct. Different studies are then presented to show the effects of developing self-regulation in the classroom context. The need to assess self-regulation as part of the teaching and learning process is discussed under certain needs in the school setting. Different protocols with examples are shown in assessing self-regulated learning as applied in the classroom.
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Carlo Magno (2009)  Demonstrating the Difference between Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory using Derived Test Data   The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment 1: 1-11 April  
Abstract: The present report demonstrates the difference between classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) approach using an actual test data for chemistry junior high school students. The CTT and IRT were compared across two samples and two forms of test on their item difficulty, internal consistency, and measurement errors. The specific IRT approach used is the oneparameter Rasch model. Two equivalent samples were drawn in a private school in the Philippines and these two sets of data were compared on the testsâ item difficulty, split-half coefficient, Cronbachâs alpha, item difficulty using the Rasch model, person and item reliability (using Rasch model), and measurement error estimates. The results demonstrate certain limitations of the classical test theory and advantages of using the IRT. It was found in the study that (1) IRT estimates of item difficulty do not change across samples as compared with CTT with inconsistencies; (2) difficulty indices were also more stable across forms of tests than the CTT approach; (3) IRT internal consistencies are very stable across samples while CTT internal consistencies failed to be stable across samples; (4) IRT had significantly less measurement errors than the CTT approach. Perspectives for stakeholders in test and measurement are discussed.
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Carlo Magno, Janelle Lynn, Kyler Lee, Robina Ko (2009)  Parents’ School-Related Behavior: Getting Involved with a Grade School and College Child   The Guidance Journal 27: 42-62 May  
Abstract: The present study investigated the parental involvement of the Filipino mothers and fathers on their childâs school-related behaviors. The study made use of Tanâs (1989) typology of fathers (procreator, dillitante, determinative, and generative) and Umali-Razonâs (1981) typology of mothers (permissive, loving, controlling, and autonomy). These characteristics in their typology were differentiated in the involvement of school-related activities for a grade school child and a college child. The pattern of differences was investigated using t-test for two independent samples, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and Multidimensional Scaling. The results showed that motherâs are significantly more loving and permissive for the grade school child while fathers are significantly more procreator and determinative for the grade school child, p<.05. The model of Umali-Razon are more fit for involvement with a grade school child while Tanâs model is more appropriate for a college child. The characteristics for mothersâ and fathersâ are closely linked for the involvement of a grade school child and these characteristics separate and becomes exclusive for the involvement in a college child.
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Carlo Magno (2009)  Developing Contemporary Teaching Perspectives for EFL Teachers   Philippine ESL Journal 2: 70-77 February  
Abstract: The article focuses on contemporary perspectives in psycholinguistics that EFL teachers need to develop in order to teach effectively. A perspective explains much on how EFL teachers implement their teaching. These perspectives include: (1) Knowing how language is acquired to teach the language effectively; (2) being aware that what is known about learning in general may be different for learning EFL; (3) holding specific beliefs about learning EFL influence the teaching of EFL; and (4) teaching is assessed by EFL by looking at teachers attitudes about teaching and learning. Given the perspectives, recommendations are provided for EFL teachers.
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Carlo Magno, Moisés Kirk de de Filho, Jennifer Ann Lajom, Joanne Rashel Regodon, Katrine S Bunagan (2009)  Assessing the Level of English Language Exposure of Taiwanese College Students in Taiwan and the Philippines   Asian EFL Journal 11: 1. 62-73 March  
Abstract: This study examines the differences in English language exposure among Taiwanese college students living in Taiwan and in the Philippines. One-hundred and eighty participants completed an English language exposure questionnaire. The results revealed that the Taiwanese in the Philippines significantly showed higher levels of English language exposure than their counterpart in Taiwan t(180)=8.99, p<.05. A large effect size on exposure (d=1.34) was observed for that difference. English learners within an English-speaking context are more exposed to the language, which enables them to imbibe and internalize the English language through communication.
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2008
Carlo Magno (2008)  Reading Strategy, Amount of Writing, Metacognition, Metamemory, and Apprehension as Predictors of English Written Proficiency   Asian EFL Journal 29: 15-48 July  
Abstract: This study investigated whether reading strategy, amount of writing, metacognition, metamemory, and apprehension significantly predicts writing proficiency in English. The sample is composed of 159 college students taking up their English course. Five instruments were administered for each of the predictor variables of written proficiency. The participants were asked to make an essay as measure of their written proficiency and were rated using the Test of Written English (TWE) scoring guide. The Pearson r was used to correlate the predictor variables with written proficiency. A multiple regression analysis was used to determine which predictor is significant. The intercorrelations revealed that all seven variables (reading strategy, amount of writing, knowledge of cognition, regulation of cognition, MMQ-contentment, MMQ-ability, MMQ-strategy, and apprehension) were significant and had high correlations with written proficiency. Correlation coefficient values ranged from .41 to .76 and significant at a=.001. The multiple regression analysis revealed that reading strategy, metamemory strategy, and regulation of cognition are significant predictors and when combined explained 58% of the variance in written proficiency. The semi partial correlations indicated that metamemory strategy as the best predictor, explaining 5% of the variance in written proficiency. Reading strategy, the next best predictor, explained 4% of the variance, and regulation of cognition explains 3.5% of the variance. Pedagogical implications include using the strategies in teaching students to write English compositions.
Notes:
2007
Carlo Magno, Josefina Sembrano (2007)  The Role of Teacher Efficacy and Characteristics on Teaching Effectiveness, Performance, and Use of Learner-Centered Practices   The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher 16: 1. 73-90 June  
Abstract: The study tested two models on the interaction of teacher variables using Structural Equations Modeling (SEM). In the first model, the effect of teacherÂs personality characteristics and teaching efficacy on teacherÂs performance and effective teaching was tested. In the second model, the effects of learner-centered practices on teacherÂs performance, effective teaching, and teaching efficacy were included. 296 teachers from a community college were assessed by their students on their teaching performance using the Student Instructional Report (SIR), the Effective Teaching Inventory (ETI), and the Learner-centered Practices Questionnaire which were devised by the researchers. On the other hand, the teachers assessed themselves using Osgoods Personality Characteristics Scale and the Teacher Efficacy Inventory by Gibson and Dembo (1984). In the SEM analysis, the two models did not change on their measures of goodness of fit with a RMSEA of .045 indicating that both models have a rather good fit. It was found that the teachers practicing learner-centered approaches use their self-efficacy in order to be effective in teaching, but it was also found that being effective does not result in high teaching performance ratings. The use of learner-centered practices is seen as effective but does not warrant having high ratings based on student assessment.
Notes:
2003

Book chapters

2010
Carlo Magno, Richard dlc Gonzales (2010)  Measurement and evaluation in the Philippine higher education: Trends and development.   In: UNESCO Policy Series: Trends and development in Philippine Education Edited by:Ethel Valenzuela. UNESCO  
Abstract: This report provides an overview of the development and trends of educational measurement and evaluation in higher education in the Philippines. The development of the field of educational measurement and evaluation in the country is heavily influenced by its colonial history and it is described to be multidisciplinary where there is integration with psychological testing and psychometrics within the social science domain. The report present covers development of the field by (1) tracing the historical background of educational testing in the Philippines starting with the NCEE; (2) describing the trends in the shift from national testing to institutional testing; (3) recounting the programs advocating the discipline among higher education institutions; and (4) citing the organizations and institutions supporting the discipline. The development in these four areas shaped the status of educational measurement and evaluation at present time. In this report, the early and rich beginnings of educational measurement and evaluation the Philippines are described both with its theoretical and practical developments.
Notes:
Carlo Magno (2010)  The concentric circles model: Implications for teaching and learning English   In: Essays on identity and values formation in English studies and literature: Voices from Asia Edited by:J. Tiangco & J. Tuan. 36-47 Taipei, Taiwan: Bookman Books, Ltd. isbn:978-957-445-376-4  
Abstract: The article presents the implications of Kachruâs concentric circles model in teaching and learning World Englishes. Considering that English is now spoken by majority of people in the world (part of the expanding circle), their needs for learning the language should be addressed through instruction and/or teaching. Models of learning a diverse form of English are explained by the need to use the English language, role of onesâ native language (for EFL learners), and standards of assessing world Englishes. The consequences of these models are also discussed. Implications for teaching and learning a diverse form of English are presented. For learning, the goal of learning world Englishes is to close the gap between the current state of English to a more potential state; English is learned given the needs in ones context; and focusing to achieve negotiations among users of the English language. Four pillars were described in teaching the diversity of English: (1) Teaching people an understanding of how to work with diversity; (2) The need to teach a more central version; (3) The need to understand the relation between English and local languages; and (4) Emphasis on description rather than prescription.
Notes:
2009
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