Ramon Kissling, Colin Fitzpatrick, Heinz Boeni, Claudia Luepschen, Stefan Andrew, John Dickenson (2012) Definition of generic re-use operating models for electrical and electronic equipment Resources, Conservation and Recycling 65 65: 85-99
Abstract: This paper aims to define a typology for the most common re-use operating models for electrical and
electronic equipment (EEE). The scope of the study is Information and Communication Technologies
(ICT) and Large Household Appliances (LHA). To describe and categorize re-use operating models, an
analytical framework was defined, which consists of the four dimensions supply chain, offer, customers
and financial structure. Based on this framework, standardized telephonic and personal interviews were
conducted with 28 case study partners.
Four re-use operating models for ICT and LHA were identified:
â€¢ The Networking Equipment Recovery Model
â€¢ The IT Asset Management Model
â€¢ The Close the Digital Divide Model
â€¢ The Social Enterprise Model
The first two models are for-profit, whereas the last two are not-for-profit. Moreover, models differ
in terms of customer segments and products and services offered to these customers. The Networking
Equipment Model processes Information Technology Networking Equipment for original equipment
manufacturers (OEMs) as main customers. IT Asset Management organizations specialize in refurbishment
of desktop and notebook computers for resale to distributors and retailers. The Close the Digital
Divide Model provides used computers to eligible recipients in developing countries. Social Enterprises
prepare computers and peripherals or large household appliances for re-use and sell them through retail
shops to individual users.
The identified models constitute generic ways to structure re-use operations along the four dimensions
of the analytical framework (â€śsupply chainâ€ť, â€śofferâ€ť, â€ścustomersâ€ť, â€śfinanceâ€ť). Different entities can utilize
one or multiple combinations of these models.
Martin Streicher-Porte, Christian Marthaler, Heinz BĂ¶ni, Mathias Schluep, Angel Camacho, Lorenz M Hilty (2009) One laptop per child, local refurbishment or overseas donations? Sustainability assessment of computer supply scenarios for schools in Colombia. J Environ Manage 90: 11. 3498-3511 Aug
Abstract: With the intention of bridging the 'digital divide' many programmes have been launched to provide computers for educational institutions, ranging from refurbishing second hand computers to delivering low cost new computers. The fast and economical provision of large quantities of equipment is one of the many challenges faced by such programmes. If an increase is to be achieved in the sustainability of computer supplies for schools, not only must equipment be provided, but also suitable training and maintenance delivered. Furthermore, appropriate recycling has to be ensured, so that end-of-life equipment can be dealt with properly. This study has evaluated the suitability of three computer supply scenarios to schools in Colombia: (i) 'Colombian refurbishment', -refurbishment of computers donated in Colombia, (ii) 'Overseas refurbishment', -import of computers which were donated and refurbished abroad, and (iii) 'XO Laptop', -purchase of low cost computers manufactured in Korea. The methods applied were: Material Flow Assessment, -to assess the quantities-, Life Cycle Assessment, -to assess the environmental impacts, and the application of the Multiple Attribute Utility Theory, -to analyse, evaluate and compare different scenarios. The most sustainable solution proved to be the local refurbishment of second hand computers of Colombian origin to an appropriate technical standard. The environmental impacts of such practices need to be evaluated carefully, as second hand appliances have to be maintained, require spare parts and sometimes use more energy than newer equipment. Providing schools with second hand computers from overseas and through programmes such as 'One Laptop Per Child' has the disadvantage that the potential for social improvements - such as creation of jobs and local industry involvement - is very low.
Steubing, BĂ¶ni, Schluep, Silva, Ludwig (2009) Assessing computer waste generation in Chile using material flow analysis. Waste Manag Sep
Abstract: The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the Chilean Customs database as well as from publications by the International Data Corporation. A survey was conducted to determine consumers' choices with respect to storage, re-use and disposal of computer equipment. The generation of e-waste was assessed in a baseline as well as upper and lower scenarios until 2020. The results for the baseline scenario show that about 10,000 and 20,000tons of computer waste may be generated in the years 2010 and 2020, respectively. The cumulative e-waste generation will be four to five times higher in the upcoming decade (2010-2019) than during the current decade (2000-2009). By 2020, the shares of LCD-monitors and laptops will increase more rapidly replacing other e-waste including the CRT-monitors. The model also shows the principal flows of computer equipment from production and sale to recycling and disposal. The re-use of computer equipment plays an important role in Chile. An appropriate recycling scheme will have to be introduced to provide adequate solutions for the growing rate of e-waste generation.