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Leonard Amaral

Institute of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
Rua Junqueira 100
1349-008 Lisbon,
Leonard Amaral, M.D., Ph.D., Emeritus Professor, Institute of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine of Lisbon; Universidade Nova de Lisboa; Travel Medicine of the Centro de Malaria e Doenças Tropicais of the Institute of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (CMDT), Lisbon, Portugal. and Distinguished Invited Scientist Fellow of the Fundacao de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Portugal Invited Professor, Institute of Medical Mycrobiology and Medical Immunology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary;


Development of therapy by which the resistance of MDR/XDR Mtb is by-passed and the non-killing macrophage is transformed into a killer of MDR/XDR Mtb.
Therapy of MDR/XDR TB with an inexpensive drug that is beyond patent protection, has no serious toxicity and has been now shown to cure XDR TB.
Development of new methods for the characterisation, evaluation and assessment of efflux pumps that render bacteria and cancer cells resistant to therapy.
Demonstration of biophysical/biochem mechanisms by which efflux pumps render bacteria multi-drug resistant.
Development of new theories for therapy of cancer based upon the 2nd law of thermodynamics.
Development of a new chemistry system based upon the use of lasers for modification of bioactive compounds.

PUBLICATION RECORD; over 275 scientific articles in Peer Review International Journals:
Publications in Bacteriology, Immunology, Hematology, Clinical Pathology, Chemical Pathology, Endocrinology, Cancer, Human Embryology, Methods for Clinical Laboratories

Development of drugs that are active (kill) against intracellular MDRTB and XDRTB.
Development of methods that assess and evaluate efflux pump activity of MDR bacteria.
Mechanisms by which efflux pumps are genetically controlled and regulated.
Development of agents that inhibit and or regulate efflux pumps.
Control of permeability of MDR bacteria to antibiotics.
Development of drugs that inhibit ABC transporters of mdr cancer cells.
Collaboration with 38 European Scientists from 33 countries via the Cost Action Programmes of the Eur Comm/Eur Sci FND-Cost Action B16 and BM0701 (ATENS).
Research supported by the Foundation of Science and Technology of Portugal
Workshops supported by the European Science Foundation
Interactive and cooperative projects supported by treaties between Portugal and participating EU countries
Leader in clinical trials for therapy of MDR/XDR TB infections.

Eduardo Abbate (Argentina)
José Ainsa (Spain)
Martin Boeree (The Netherlands)
Isabel Couto, (Portugal)
Sujata Dastidar (India)
Séamus Fanning (Ireland)
Maria-Jose Umbelino Ferreira
Gyorgy Hajos (Hungary)
Judit Hohman (Hungary)
Attila Hunyadi (Hungary)
Katarzyna Kiec-Kononowicz (Poland)
Jette E Kristiansen (Denmark)
Ana Martins (Hungary)
Marta Martins (Ireland)
Matthew McCusker (Ireland)
Joseph Molnar (Hungary)
Mihail Pascu (Romania)
Jean-Marie Pages (France)
Isabel Portugal (Portugal)
Spyros Pournaras (Greece)
George Tegos (USA)
Zarir Utwadia (India)
Jakko van Ingen (The Netherlands)
Dick van Soolingen (The Netherlands)
Miguel Viveiros, (Portugal)
Mark Wainwright (UK)

Antibiotics Open Access
Biochemistry & Pharmacology Open Access
Biochemistry & Endocrinology Open Access
Cancer Up-Date Reports Open Access
Cancer Vaccines UK
Frontiers Journals
Global Cancer Therapy
Mycobacterial Diseases: Tuberculosis & Leprosy
Microbiology Open Access
Pharmacology Open Access
Pharmaceuticals Open Access
Patent Review Anti-infective (PRI)
PRI Opinion Editor

International Journal Antimicrobial Agents
Antimicrobial Therapy
American Society Microbiology Journals
Elsevier Journals
Journal of Antimicrobial Therapy
Journals of the International Institute Anticancer Institute
International Journal Tuberculosis & Lung Disease
OMICS Group Open Access Journals
Oxford Journals
PLoS Journals
ROSS Open Access Journals

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