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Loretta Müller

Journal articles

Loretta Muller, Claire V Chehrazi, Michael W Henderson, Terry L Noah, Ilona Jaspers (2013)  Diesel exhaust particles modify natural killer cell function and cytokine release   Part Fibre Toxicol 10: 1.  
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells are an important lymphocyte population in the nasal mucosa and play important roles in linking the innate and the adaptive immune response. Their two main functions are direct cell-mediated cytotoxicity and the release of cytokines. They are important during viral infections and cancer. Due to their location in the nasal mucosa, NK cells are likely exposed to inhaled pollutants, such as diesel exhaust. Whether and how exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) affects NK cell function in the context of viral infections has not been investigated. METHODS: NK cells were isolated from peripheral blood obtained from normal healthy volunteers and subsequently stimulated with the viral mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pI:C), DEP, or pI:C+DEP for 18 hours. NK cells were subsequently analyzed for changes in surface marker expression, cytokine production, gene expression changes, and cytotoxic function using flow cytometry, ELISA, qRT-PCR, and cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay, respectively. RESULTS: Stimulation of NK cells with pI:C and pI:C+DEP, but not DEP alone, increased the release of IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. As compared to pI:C alone or pI:C+DEP, the release of IL-1beta, IL-8 and TNF-alpha was significantly lower after DEP stimulation alone. Stimulation with pI:C alone increased the gene and protein expression of granzyme B and perforin, which was completely blunted by adding DEP. Addition of DEP further reduced CD16 expression in pI:C stimulated cells. Similarly, cell-mediated cytotoxicity was significantly reduced by the addition of DEP. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of viral infection, DEP potentially reduces NK cells' ability to kill virus-infected host cells, in spite of normal cytokine levels, and this may increase susceptibility to viral infections . This reduction in the potential ability of NK cells to kill virus-infected host cells may increase the susceptibility to viral infections after DEP exposure.
Notes: Muller, Loretta xD;Chehrazi, Claire Ve xD;Henderson, Michael W xD;Noah, Terry L xD;Jaspers, Ilona xD;R01 ES013611/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ xD;Part Fibre Toxicol. 2013 Apr 24;10(1):16.
Loretta Muller, Luisa E Brighton, Ilona Jaspers (2013)  Ozone exposed epithelial cells modify cocultured natural killer cells   Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 304: 5. L332-41  
Abstract: Ozone (O) causes significant adverse health effects worldwide. Nasal epithelial cells (NECs) are among the first sites within the respiratory system to be exposed to inhaled air pollutants. They recruit, activate, and interact with immune cells via soluble mediators and direct cell-cell contacts. Based on our recent observation demonstrating the presence of natural killer (NK) cells in nasal lavages, the goal of this study was to establish a coculture model of NECs and NK cells and examine how exposure to O modifies this interaction. Flow cytometry analysis was used to assess immunophenotypes of NK cells cocultured with either air- or Oexposed NECs. Our data show that coculturing NK cells with O-exposed NECs decreased intracellular interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), enhanced, albeit not statistically significant, IL-4, and increased CD16 expression on NK cells compared with air controls. Additionally, the cytotoxicity potential of NK cells was reduced after coculturing with O-exposed NECs. To determine whether soluble mediators released by O-exposed NECs caused this shift, apical and basolateral supernatants of air- and O-exposed NECs were used to stimulate NK cells. While the conditioned media of O-exposed NECs alone did not reduce intracellular IFN-gamma, O enhanced the expression of NK cell ligands ULBP3 and MICA/B on NECs. Blocking ULBP3 and MICA/B reversed the effects of O-exposed NECs on IFN-gamma production in NK cells. Taken together, these data showed that interactions between NECs and NK cells in the context of O exposure changes NK cell activity via direct cell-cell interactions and is dependent on ULBP3/MICA/B expressed on NECs.
Notes: Muller, Loretta xD;Brighton, Luisa E xD;Jaspers, Ilona xD;Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013 Mar;304(5):L332-41. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00256.2012. Epub 2012 Dec 14.
Julia E Rager, Rebecca N Bauer, Loretta L Müller, Lisa Smeester, Johnny L Carson, Luisa E Brighton, Rebecca C Fry, Ilona Jaspers (2013)  DNA methylation in nasal epithelial cells from smokers: identification of ULBP3-related effects.   American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 305: 6. L432-L438 Sep  
Abstract: We previously demonstrated that, in nasal epithelial cells (NECs) from smokers, methylation of an antiviral gene was associated with impaired antiviral defense responses. To expand these findings and better understand biological mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke (CS)-induced modifications of host defense responses, we aimed to compare DNA methylation of genes that may play a role in antiviral response. We used a two-tiered analytical approach, where we first implemented a genome-wide strategy. NECs from smokers differed in the methylation levels of 390 genes, the majority (84%) of which showed decreased methylation in smokers. Secondly, we generated an a priori set of 161 antiviral response-related genes, of which five were differentially methylated in NEC from smokers (CCL2, FDPS, GSK3B, SOCS3, and ULBP3). Assessing these genes at the systems biology level revealed a protein interaction network associated with CS-induced epigenetic modifications involving SOCS3 and ULBP3 signaling, among others. Subsequent confirmation studies focused on SOCS3 and ULBP3, which were hypomethylated and hypermethylated, respectively. Expression of SOCS3 was increased, whereas ULBP3 expression was decreased in NECs from smokers. Addition of the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine enhanced ULBP3 expression in NECs from smokers. Furthermore, infection of differentiated NECs with influenza virus resulted in significantly lower levels of ULBP3 in cells from smokers. Taken together, our findings show that genomic DNA methylation profiles are altered in NECs from smokers and that these changes are associated with decreased antiviral host defense responses, indicating that epigenenic dysregulation of genes such as SOCS3 and ULBP3 likely impacts immune responses in the epithelium.
Rebecca N Bauer, Luisa E Brighton, Loretta Mueller, Zhidan Xiang, Julia E Rager, Rebecca C Fry, David B Peden, Ilona Jaspers (2012)  Influenza enhances caspase-1 in bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic volunteers and is associated with pathogenesis   J Allergy Clin Immunol 130: 4. 958-967  
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The leading cause of asthma exacerbation is respiratory viral infection. Innate antiviral defense pathways are altered in the asthmatic epithelium, yet involvement of inflammasome signaling in virus-induced asthma exacerbation is not known. OBJECTIVE: This study compared influenza-induced activation of inflammasome and innate immune signaling in human bronchial epithelial cells from volunteers with and without asthma and investigated the role of caspase-1 in epithelial cell antiviral defense. METHODS: Differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells from volunteers with and without asthma were infected with influenza A virus. An inflammasome-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction array was used to compare baseline and influenza-induced gene expression profiles. Cytokine secretion, innate immune gene expression, and viral replication were compared between human bronchial epithelial cells from volunteers with and without asthma. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate caspase-1 and PYCARD colocalization. Tracheal epithelial cells from caspase-1-deficient or wild-type mice were infected with influenza and assessed for antiviral gene expression and viral replication. RESULTS: Human bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic volunteers had altered influenza-induced expression of inflammasome-related and innate immune signaling components, which correlated with enhanced production of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. Specifically, influenza-induced caspase-1 expression was enhanced and localization differed in human bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic volunteers compared to volunteers without asthma. Influenza-infected tracheal epithelial cells from caspase-1-deficient mice had reduced expression of antiviral genes and viral replication. CONCLUSION: Caspase-1 plays an important role in the airway epithelial cell response to influenza infection, which is enhanced in asthmatic volunteers, and may contribute to the enhanced influenza-related pathogenesis observed in vivo.
Notes: Bauer, Rebecca N xD;Brighton, Luisa E xD;Mueller, Loretta xD;Xiang, Zhidan xD;Rager, Julia E xD;Fry, Rebecca C xD;Peden, David B xD;Jaspers, Ilona xD;R01 ES013611/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ xD;T32 ES007126/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ xD;U19 AI077437/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ xD;J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Oct;130(4):958-967.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.07.013.
Loretta Muller, Pierre Comte, Jan Czerwinski, Markus Kasper, Andreas CR Mayer, Adrian Schmid, Lukas Rosinus, Martin JD Clift, Sandro Steiner, Peter Gehr, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser (2012)  Investigating the potential for different scooter and car exhaust emissions to cause cytotoxic and (pro-)inflammatory responses to a 3D in vitro model of the human epithelial airway   Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 94: 1. 164-180  
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity and the (pro-)inflammatory responses of two-stroke (direct injection and carburetor technology) and four-stroke scooter and diesel car exhaust emissions on lung cells in vitro. This was analyzed by exposing a 3D in vitro model of the epithelial airway (consisting of human bronchial epithelial cells (cell line 16HBE14o(-)) combined with human whole blood monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells) to physically characterized exhaust emissions. Biological endpoints of cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase release), as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) and inflammatory chemokine (interleukin(IL)-8) stimulation were examined. Two-stroke direct injection scooter exhaust contained the highest particle number concentration and nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations and the emissions from the two-stroke carburetor scooter contained the highest hydrocarbon and lowest NOx concentrations. The four-stroke scooter emitted the highest carbon monoxide concentration whereas the cars emitted the lowest. The combination of various technical optimizations for the two-stroke direct injection scooter (particle filter, oxidative catalyst, better oil and fuel) reduced the total emissions strongly and the TNF-alpha concentration significantly (p < 0.05). The cytotoxicity and the IL-8 concentration showed strong tendencies to be reduced. The analysis of the emissions of all tested two-stroke, four-stroke scooters and diesel cars showed a strong association between the adverse effects and the particle number concentration.
Notes: 923CN xD;Times Cited:0 xD;Cited References Count:37
Sandro Steiner, Loretta Muller, Olga B Popovicheva, David O Raemy, Jan Czerwinski, Pierre Comte, Andreas C Mayer, Peter Gehr, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, M J Clift (2012)  Cerium dioxide nanoparticles can interfere with the associated cellular mechanistic response to diesel exhaust exposure   Toxicol Lett  
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the biological response of a sophisticated in vitro 3D co-culture model of the epithelial airway barrier to a co-exposure of CeO(2) NPs and diesel exhaust using a realistic air-liquid exposure system. Independent of the individual effects of either diesel exhaust or CeO(2) NPs investigation observed that a combined exposure of CeO(2) NPs and diesel exhaust did not cause a significant cytotoxic effect or alter cellular morphology after exposure to diesel exhaust for two hours at 20mug/ml (low dose) or for six hours at 60mug/ml (high dose), and a subsequent six hours exposure to an aerosolized solution of CeO(2) NPs at the same doses. A significant loss in the reduced intracellular glutathione level was recorded, although a significant increase in the oxidative marker HMOX-1 was found after exposure to a low and high dose respectively. Both the gene expression and protein release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha were significantly elevated after a high dose exposure only. In conclusion, CeO(2) NPs, in combination with diesel exhaust, can significantly interfere with the cell machinery, indicating a specific, potentially adverse role of CeO(2) NPs in regards to the biological response of diesel exhaust exposure.
Notes: Steiner, Sandro xD;Muller, Loretta xD;Popovicheva, Olga B xD;Raemy, David O xD;Czerwinski, Jan xD;Comte, Pierre xD;Mayer, Andreas xD;Gehr, Peter xD;Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara xD;Clift, Martin J D xD;Journal article xD;Toxicology letters xD;Toxicol Lett. 2012 Sep 6.
Loretta Muller, Michael Riediker, Peter Wick, Martin Mohr, Peter Gehr, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser (2010)  Oxidative stress and inflammation response after nanoparticle exposure : differences between human lung cell monocultures and an advanced three-dimensional model of the human epithelial airways   J.R.Soc.Interface 7: 27-40  
Abstract: Combustion-derived and manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) are known to provoke oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in human lung cells; therefore, they play an important role during the development of adverse health effects. As the lungs are composed of more than 40 different cell types, it is of particular interest to perform toxicological studies with co-cultures systems, rather than with monocultures of only one cell type, to gain a better understanding of complex cellular reactions upon exposure to toxic substances. Monocultures of A549 human epithelial lung cells, human monocyte-derived macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) as well as triple cell co-cultures consisting of all three cell types were exposed to combustion-derived NPs (diesel exhaust particles) and to manufactured NPs (titanium dioxide and single-walled carbon nanotubes). The penetration of particles into cells was analysed by transmission electron microscopy. The amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-8 were quantified. The results of the monocultures were summed with an adjustment for the number of each single cell type in the triple cell co-culture. All three particle types were found in all cell and culture types. The production of ROS was induced by all particle types in all cell cultures except in monocultures of MDDCs. The TAC and the (pro-)inflammatory reactions were not statistically significantly increased by particle exposure in any of the cell cultures. Interestingly, in the triple cell co-cultures, the TAC and IL-8 concentrations were lower and the TNF-alpha concentrations were higher than the expected values calculated from the monocultures. The interplay of different lung cell types seems to substantially modulate the oxidative stress and the inflammatory responses after NP exposure
Notes: DA - 20090709 xD;148 xD;doi: 10.1098/rsif.2009.0161.focus
Loretta Muller, Pierre Comte, Jan Czerwinski, Markus Kasper, Andreas C Mayer, Peter Gehr, Heinz Burtscher, Jean-Paul Morin, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser (2010)  New Exposure System To Evaluate the Toxicity of (Scooter) Exhaust Emissions in Lung Cells in Vitro   Environ Sci Technol 44: 7. 2632-2638  
Abstract: A constantly growing number of scooters produce an increasing amount of potentially harmful emissions. Due to their engine technology, two-stroke scooters emit huge amounts of adverse substances, which can induce adverse pulmonary and cardiovascular health effects. The aim of this study was to develop a system to expose a characterized triple cell coculture model of the human epithelial airway barrier, to freshly produced and characterized total scooter exhaust emissions. In exposure chambers, cell cultures were exposed for 1 and 2 h to 1:100 diluted exhaust emissions and in the reference chamber to filtered ambient air, both controlled at 5% CO(2), 85% relative humidity, and 37 degrees C. The postexposure time was 0-24 h. Cytotoxicity, used to validate the exposure system, was significantly increased in exposed cell cultures after 8 h postexposure time. (Pro-) inflammatory chemo- and cytokine concentrations in the medium of exposed cells were significantly higher at the 12 h postexposure time point. It was shown that the described exposure system (with 2 h exposure duration, 8 and 24 h postexposure time, dilution of 1:100, flow of 2 L/min as optimal exposure conditions) can be used to evaluate the toxic potential of total exhaust emissions
Notes: DA - 20100330 xD;201
J N Maina, J B West, S Orgeig, N J Foot, C B Daniels, S G Kiama, P Gehr, C Muhlfeld, F Blank, L Muller, A Lehmann, C Brandenberger, B Rothen-Rutishauser (2010)  Recent advances into understanding some aspects of the structure and function of mammalian and avian lungs   Physiol Biochem.Zool. 83: 5. 792-807  
Abstract: Recent findings are reported about certain aspects of the structure and function of the mammalian and avian lungs that include (a) the architecture of the air capillaries (ACs) and the blood capillaries (BCs); (b) the pulmonary blood capillary circulatory dynamics; (c) the adaptive molecular, cellular, biochemical, compositional, and developmental characteristics of the surfactant system; (d) the mechanisms of the translocation of fine and ultrafine particles across the airway epithelial barrier; and (e) the particle-cell interactions in the pulmonary airways. In the lung of the Muscovy duck Cairina moschata, at least, the ACs are rotund structures that are interconnected by narrow cylindrical sections, while the BCs comprise segments that are almost as long as they are wide. In contrast to the mammalian pulmonary BCs, which are highly compliant, those of birds practically behave like rigid tubes. Diving pressure has been a very powerful directional selection force that has influenced phenotypic changes in surfactant composition and function in lungs of marine mammals. After nanosized particulates are deposited on the respiratory tract of healthy human subjects, some reach organs such as the brain with potentially serious health implications. Finally, in the mammalian lung, dendritic cells of the pulmonary airways are powerful agents in engulfing deposited particles, and in birds, macrophages and erythrocytes are ardent phagocytizing cellular agents. The morphology of the lung that allows it to perform different functions-including gas exchange, ventilation of the lung by being compliant, defense, and secretion of important pharmacological factors-is reflected in its "compromise design."
Notes: DA - 20100820 xD;244
Michael Gasser, Michael Riediker, Loretta Mueller, Alain Perrenoud, Fabian Blank, Peter Gehr, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser (2009)  Toxic effects of brake wear particles on epithelial lung cells in vitro.   Particle and fibre toxicology 6: 11  
Abstract: Fine particulate matter originating from traffic correlates with increased morbidity and mortality. An important source of traffic particles is brake wear of cars which contributes up to 20% of the total traffic emissions. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential toxicological effects of human epithelial lung cells exposed to freshly generated brake wear particles.
Maria Helfenstein, Michele Miragoli, Stephan Rohr, Loretta Muller, Peter Wick, Martin Mohr, Peter Gehr, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser (2008)  Effects of combustion-derived ultrafine particles and manufactured nanoparticles on heart cells in vitro   Toxicology 253: 253. 70-78  
Abstract: Evidence from epidemiological studies indicates that acute exposure to airborne pollutants is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the effects of combustion-derived ultrafine particles (diesel exhaust particles) as well as engineered nanoparticles (titanium dioxide and single-walled carbon nanotubes) on impulse conduction characteristics, myofibrillar structure and the formation of reactive oxygen species in patterned growth strands of neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes in vitro. Diesel exhaust particles as well as titanium dioxide nanoparticles showed the most pronounced effects. We observed a dose-dependent change in heart cell function, an increase in reactive oxygen species and, for titanium dioxide, we also found a less organized myofibrillar structure. The mildest effects were observed for single-walled carbon nanotubes, for which no clear dose-dependent alterations of theta and dV/dt(max) could be determined. In addition, there was no increase in oxidative stress and no change in the myofibrillar structure. These results suggest that diesel exhaust as well as titanium dioxide particles and to a lesser extent also single-walled carbon nanotubes can directly induce cardiac cell damage and can affect the function of the cells
Notes: DA - 20080930 xD;doi:10.1016/j.tox.2008.08.018
Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Loretta Mueller, Fabian Blank, Christina Brandenberger, Christian Muehlfeld, Peter Gehr (2008)  A newly developed in vitro model of the human epithelial airway barrier to study the toxic potential of nanoparticles   ALTEX 25: 3. 191-196  
Abstract: The potential health effects of inhaled engineered nanoparticles are almost unknown. To avoid and replace toxicity studies with animals, a triple cell co-culture system composed of epithelial cells, macrophages and dendritic cells was established, which simulates the most important barrier functions of the epithelial airway. Using this model, the toxic potential of titanium dioxide was assessed by measuring the production of reactive oxygen species and the release of tumour necrosis factor alpha. The intracellular localisation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles was analyzed by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were detected as single particles without membranes and in membrane-bound agglomerates. Cells incubated with titanium dioxide particles showed an elevated production of reactive oxygen species but no increase of the release of tumour necrosis factor alpha. Our in vitro model of the epithelial airway barrier offers a valuable tool to study the interaction of particles with lung cells at a nanostructural level and to investigate the toxic potential of nanoparticles
Notes: DA - 20081008

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